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Изучение английского языка на примерах из деловой лексики. Основные грамматические конструкции.
• The Present Simple
• The Past Simple
• The Future Simple Tense
• The Present Continuous Tense
• The Past Continuous Tense
• The Future Continuous Tense
• The Present Perfect Tense
• The Past Perfect Tense
• The Future Perfect Tense
• The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
• The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
• The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
• The Passive Voice
• The Participle 1
• The Participle 2
• The Absolute Participle Construction
• The Gerund
• The Infinitive
• The Objective Infinitive Construction
• The Subjective Infinitive Construction
• The Conditionals
• The Reported Speech
• Can, Could
• May, Might
• Must, Mustn 't, Needn 't
• Shall, Should
• Will, Would
• It is (was) ... that (which)
• The... the...
• One
• That/ Those
• As
• Like, as
• As well as
• For
• Since
• But
• Too
• The only, the very
• Because of
• Both, either, neither
• Both... and
1. Other things being equal, an increase in wage rates will increase the cost of labour relative to the cost of other factors.
2. The production of the Liberty ships showed similar effects, the first taking many months to build and the last only three days.
3. In order to simplify the analysis we can consider two firms, one being representative of high-cost producers and the other of low-cost producers.
4. Most industries make use of a variety of machines, each machine carrying out a different operation.

5. The principle of action being rather simple, the new device was widely used for different purposes.
6. The selling price must relate to the production cost, which in turn, depends on the quantity sold, this quantity being dependent upon the sales price.
7. It being too late, they decided to stop working.
8. Other things being equal, the demand for a commodity will tend to vary directly as the price of its substitute.
9. The installation was atomised last year, its capacity rising by 20 per cent.
10. All the problems having been solved, they went home.
11. The goods having been loaded, the dockworkers left the port.
12. Member nations are required to subscribe to the capital stock of the World Bank, each being given a quota which is related to the member's national income and position in the world trade.

Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на независимый причастный оборот.

1. You can set your mind at ease, all being well. 2. There being no chance of escape, the thief was arrested on the spot. 3. Oliver knocked weakly at the door and, all his strength failing him, sank near the door. 4. The bridge having been swept away by the flood, the train was late. 5. There being little time left, they hired a cab to get to the theatre in time. 6. It being cold and damp, a fire was lighted for the weary travellers to warm themselves by. 7. It being pretty late, they decided to postpone their visit. 8. The hour being late, she hastened home. 9. The sun having set an hour before, it was getting darker. 10. The weather being cold, he put on his overcoat. 11. The weather having changed, we decided to stay where we were. 12. The weather being very warm, the closet window was left open. 13. And the wind having dropped, they set out to walk. 14. The vessel being pretty deep in the water and the weather being calm, there was but little motion. 15. The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit was very low. 16. This material being a dielectriс, no current can flow through it. 17. The next morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church.

Независимый причастный оборот (Nominative Absolute Participial Construction)

The day being piercing cold, he had no desire to loiter.

Так как день был пронизывающе холодным, он не имел желания медлить.

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Деловая переписка на английском языке. Скачать книгу

The Absolute Participle Construction / Независимый причастный оборот