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The Subjective Infinitive Construction

Сложное подлежащее

1. The new manager is said to work 12 hours a day.
2. The free market economy is said to be more flexible.
3. Three people are reported to have been injured in the explosion.
4. The strike is expected to end soon.
5 Complementarity is said to exist when an increase in the quantity of one product sold leads to an increase in the demand of another product.
6. Consumers are assumed to wish to maximize their utility of satisfaction.

7. Firms are assumed to maximize their short-run profits.
8. When an increase in the scale of production yields a more than proportionate increase in output, the enterprise is said to be experiencing economies of scale.
9. The train was supposed to arrive at 7 o'clock but it was half an hour late.
10. Many people are reported to be homeless after the floods.
11. The building is reported to have been damaged by fire.
12. The company is said to be losing a lot of money.
11. Goods which are close substitutes for one another are said to be in competitive demand.
14. A good is said to be in composite demand when it is demanded for several different uses.
15. The capitalist system is said to be based upon the principle of competition.
16. Consumers are assumed to maximize the satisfaction derived from the goods and services that they buy.
17. Firms are assumed to know what quantity of each product they would sell.
18. Consumers are assumed to be aware of all the goods and services they could buy.
19. The total value of international movements of capital is thought to be at least ten times the value of world trade in goods and services.

1. A small firm is likely to be specialising in one product.
2. The larger firm is likely to have a diversified market structure.
3. An increase in the output of capital goods is likely to mean that the current consumption of goods and services is less than it might have been.
4. 'Ownership' of labour is likely to be highly unpopular politically.
5. The limit to output is most likely to be determined by the quantity of capital inputs.
6. The balance is most likely to swing towards installing additional capacity under the following circumstances.
7. The larger firm is more likely to be able to employ buyers who are experienced in buying particular products.
8. Horizontal growth is unlikely to give rise to those risk-bearing economies which depend upon a diversified range of activities.
9. Diversified growth is more likely to give rise to risk bearing economies.
10. In fact demand is likely to be highly elastic when the market is depressed.
11. Even if market demand is inelastic, the demand for the product of a firm which increases its price is likely to be highly elastic.
12. The reasons for this is that rival suppliers are likely to maintain their prices in the hope of attracting customers from the higher-price firm.
13. Price reductions are most likely to occur if they can be concealed from competitors.
14. Price is likely to be held stable during the pricing season over quite a wide range of output, both greater and less than expected.
15. If the original profit margin was not considered to be adequate and demand is less than expected, the response is likely to be as before.
16. But when demand turns out to be greater than expected suppliers are likely to take the opportunity to improve their profit margins.
17. As we noted above, firms are likely to be most confident about rivals' responses, i.e. to be able to exercise control over price, in highly concentrated industries.
18. Initially price is unlikely to fall in response to a fall in demand.
19. The effect on an increase in output is likely to be most pronounced when the economy as a whole is operating near full capacity.
20. Each of these different machines is likely to have a different capacity.

С .
1. The aim
of convertibility proved difficult to achieve.
2. The management seem to be moving in the right direction.
3. The two sides appear to have solved the problem.
4. Since that time the market share of these larger companies does not seem to have increased.
5. These studies seem to indicate that the size structure of plants in British industry is such that they are able to take advantage of such scale economies as are available.
6. Many mergers appear to have been motivated by a desire to increase market power rather than by a desire to increase efficiency.

Сложное подлежащее. Complex Subject

Эта конструкция состоит из существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива. Переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением.

He is said to know six languages.Говорят, что он знает шесть языков.
He was said to know six languages.Говорили, что он знает шесть языков.
He is said to have gone to London.Говорят, что он уехал в Лондон.
He was said to have gone to London.Говорили, что он уехал в Лондон.
Обратите внимание, что сказуемое выражено глаголом в Passive Voice

Упражнение 459. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя сложное подлежащее.

• E.g. We heard that a car stopped outside the door. A car was heard to stop outside the door.

It is believed that the poem was written by Byron. The poem is believed to have been written by Byron.

1. People consider the climate there to be very healthful. 2. It was announced that the Chinese dancers were arriving next week. 3. It is expected that the performance will be a success. 4. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young. 5. It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier. 6. It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy. 7. It is reported that the flood has caused much damage to the crops. 8. It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year. 9. It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver. 10. Scientists consider that electricity exists throughout space. 11. It is said that the weather in Europe was exceedingly hot last summer. 12. It was reported that five ships were missing after the battle.