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That / Those

A. 1. That he refused to help his partners is very strange.
2. The problem that was discussed yesterday is very important.
3. Risk capital is that part of the capital stock which is raised by the sale of shares.
4. Dividends and interest on risk capital need not be paid in those years when the company has not prospered.
5. A major disadvantage of free or floating rates is that they add a further element of uncertainty to international trades.
6. In the UK, public expenditure is officially defined as that expenditure which has to be financed from taxation, national insurance contributions, and government borrowing.

B. 1. Although there are more male births than female births, the number of females in the total population exceeds that of males.
2. These rates are higher than those in most Western European countries.
3. The most widely used indicator of monopoly power is that of the market share.
4. Unofficial strikes are those which do not have full support of the trade union.
5. The rate of savings in rich countries is much higher than that in poor countries.
6. The aims of monetary policy are the same as those of economic policy generally.
7. This is due to the greatest element of risk and the fact that administrative cost of small loans are proportionately greater than those for larger loans.
8. The most common definition of an industry is that used in official statistics which groups firms into industries according to physical and technical properties of their principal products.
9. The selling costs of the larger firm will be much greater than those of the smaller firm.
10. Internal economies of scale are those which arise from the growth of the firm independently of what is happening to other firms.
11. The separation of ownership and control in the modern corporation results in potential conflicts between owners and managers since the objectives of management may differ from those of the shareholders.
That, those (без последующего существительного) — заменяют ранее упомянутые существительные. После них часто следует предлог (обычно of) или определение. При переводе рекомендуется заменить их соответствующим существительным

The apparatus is identical with that described above. Эта аппаратура идентична описанной выше аппаратуре.