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Основные грамматические конструкции английского языка с примерами из деловой лексики


Рабочая тетрадь III семестра для экономических и управленческих специальностей
(Контрольная работа №3)

Первое занятие
Стр. 25 TASK 1

Беспереводное понимание текста:
- изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
- дать перевод ключевых слов.


Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.
A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.
When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the big run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a profit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund raising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.


Общее содержание текста:
Corporations get financing in two major ways. Firstly, they can issue shares in exchange for money or property. It is called equity funding. Secondly, they can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. While functioning, the capital flows in and out. The outflow of the capital is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. When the inflow is greater than the outflow, the busihess is profitable.

Ключевые слова и их перевод:
financing - финансирование
purchase - покупка
assets - активы
expenses - расходы
issue shares - выпускать акции
property - собственность
equity funding - акционирование, акционерный способ образования собственного или основного капитала
holders of the shares - держатели акций
ownership - собственники, владельцы, владение
stock certificate - cертификат на получение акции
negotiable - оборотный, обращаемый (могущий быть переуступленным)
net assets - чистые активы
total number - общее число
borrowing - заимствование, займ
debt funding - долговое финансирование (заем)
notes - среднесрочные долговые обязательства (облигации)
bonds - долгосрочные долговые обязательства (облигации)
interest - процент
consider - рассматривать, принимать во внимание
outflow - приток
inflow - отток (денег, капитала)
inventory - товарно-материальные запасы
supplies - поставки
salary - зарплата
profit - доход
deduct - вычитать
losses on bad debts - убытки от безнадежного долга
interest on borrowed capital - проценты по заемному капиталу
fund raising - сбор спонсорских денег, сбор средств
investment - инвестиции, вложение денег.

Cтр. 26 TASK 2

Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем:
Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have. A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

Перевод Корпорации нуждаются в финансировании для пополнения активов и оплаты расходов. Корпорации могут выпустить акции в обмен на деньги или собственность. Иногда это называют акционированием собственного капитала или акционерным (долевым) способом образования основного капитала. Держатели акций являются собственниками компании. Каждая акция имеет свидетельство или сертификат, который подтверждает ее обращаемость . Это означает, что акцию можно купить и продать. Стоимость акции определена стоимостью нетто-активов (чистых активов), разделенной на общее количество проданных акций. Стоимость акции также зависит от успешной работы компании. Чем успешнее компания, тем выше стоимость акции. Корпорация может также получить капитал путем заимствования (выпуска займа). Это называют долговым финансированием. Если корпорация занимает деньги, она выпускает среднесрочные (notes) и долгосрочные долговые инструменты (bonds) Они также являются обращаемыми. Но процент по облигациям должен быть выплачен, независимо от того, приносит бизнес доход или нет.

Стр. 27 TASK 3

Answer the following questions:

1. Why do all corporations need financing?

    Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses.
2. What does equity funding mean?
    The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding.
3. What does debt funding mean?
    A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding.
4. How is the value of a share determined?
    The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding.
5. What activities produce an inflow and outflow of capital?
    The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services.
6. What can happen if an enterprise has a greater outflow of capital than an inflow?
    It may go bankrupt.
7. Why is the risk involved an important factor in determining fund raising?
    It shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.

TASK 4

Fill in the following form.

First name (имя)  
Surname (фамилия)  
Date of Birth (дата рождения)  
Place of Birth (место рождения)  
Permanent Address (постоянный адрес)  
Marital Status (семейное положение)married/single/divorced
Occupation (место работы) 
Qualifications (квалификация (дипломы, сертификаты, свидетельства)) 
Hobbies/Interests (увлечения, интересы)  
Tel. no. (номер телефона) 

Стр. 28 TASK 5

Беспереводное понимание текста:
- изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
- дать перевод ключевых слов.

The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers. A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Общее содержание текста:

The computer industry is one of the largest in the world. A computer is operated and instructed by man. In business the computer is used to process data and perform certain administrative functions. Now the computer is becoming an indispensable (необходимый, обязательный) tool in business.

Ключевые слова и их перевод:
include - включать в себя
manufacture - производить
sell - продавать
lease - сдавать в аренду или напрокат
supply products and services - поставлять продукты и услуги
determine - определять
solves mathematical problems - решать математические задачи
payroll - платежная ведомость
warehouse - склад
distribution - распределение, сбыт
accounting - бухгалтерский учет
billing - выписка счетов
insurance companies - страховые компании
essential tool - важный инструмент
make decisions - принимать решения.

Cтр. 29 TASK 6

Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем:
A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Перевод Компьютер не может думать. Человек вносит данные в компьютер и дает инструкции. Оператор пишет команды, которые производят математические операции с информацией. Компьютер решает математические задачи очень быстро. Традиционно, компьютер в бизнесе используется для обработки данных, включая различные административные функции, такие как подготовка платежных ведомостей, инвентаризация на производстве, складирование и учет, бухгалтерский учет, выписка счетов страховыми компаниями, предприятиями коммунального обслуживания и массовыми журналами. Теперь компьютер имеет много новых функций. Он стал существенным инструментом в деловых операциях и в принятии решений на самом высоком административном уровне.

Стр. 30 TASK 7.

Answer the following questions:

1. What does the computer industry include?

    It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.
2. In what way does a computer operate?
    A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions.
3. How was the computer traditionally used in business?
    Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data.
4. What new kinds of jobs is the computer taking?
    It has become more involved in business operations and in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Первое домашнее занятие