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Деловой английский для студентов-экономистов

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Основные грамматические конструкции английского языка с примерами из деловой лексики

  • THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКАЯ СРЕДА)
  • MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY (ИЗМЕРЕНИЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ)


  • Рабочая тетрадь III семестра для экономических и управленческих специальностей
    (Контрольная работа №3)

    Четвертое занятие

    Стр. 59 TASK 1

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.


    In business, organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.
    Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and below each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice president of marketing has direct authority over a sales manager. A sales manager in his turn has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.
    When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally they do not give orders to other departments.

    Общее содержание текста:

    Vertical line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct authority of the above level over the below one. This structure simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.
    Staff departments and staff specialists usually deal with services, such as accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. They are not tied in with the company product and do not give orders to other departments.

    Ключевые слова и их перевод:

    relationship - взаимоотношения
    to hold a position - занимать должность
    organization structure - организационная структура
    level - уровень
    above and below - над и под (предлоги)
    sales manager - менеджер по сбыту, менеджер отдела сбыта, консультант по продажам
    authority - власть
    salesman - продавец, торговец
    to have direct authority over smb. - иметь прямую власть над кем- либо
    simplify - упрощать
    staff - штат служащих, служебный персонал, кадры
    to give orders - отдавать приказы, распоряжения
    to take orders - получать приказы, распоряжения
    to be tied in with the company product - быть связанным с производством
    complex - сложный

    Стр. 61 TASK 2

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем
    The main idea of it is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and bellow each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice president of marketing has direct authority over a sales manager. A sales manager in his turn has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.
    When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally they do not give orders to other departments.

    Перевод
    Основная идея заключается в прямом вертикальном подчинении низшего звена высшему на всех уровнях управления. Например, менеджер по продажам может занимать положение между вице-президентом по маркетингу и продавцом. Таким образом, вице-президент по маркетингу властен над менеджером. Менеджер по продажам, в свою очередь властен над продавцом. Эта цепочка подчинения упрощает проблемы управления.
    Когда предприятие растет, усложняется руководство и возникает потребность в новых специалистах. В таком случае администрация может создать непроизводственный отдел и принять в штат новых сотрудников. Они, как правило, занимаются административной работой и не связаны с производством продукции. Их деятельность включает бухгалтерский учет, работу с кадрами, кредиты и рекламу. Обычно они не управляют другими отделами.

    Стр. 62 TASK 3

    Answer the following questions:

    1. What does the organization structure mean?

      In business, organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions.
    2. What does the organization structure provide?
      It provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.<
    3. What is historically the oldest type of organization
      Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure.
    4. In what position is a sales manager in attitude to a vice-president of marketing and salesman?
      A sales manager is in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman.
    5. What is the difference between line and staff departments?
      Staff departments do not give orders to other departments.
    6. Why does an advertising department or a credit department consider staff structure rather than line structure?
      These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product.

    Стр. 62 TASK 4

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.

    Inflation is generally defined as a persistent rise in the general price level with no corresponding rise in output, which leads to a corresponding fall in the purchasing power of money. In this section we shall look briefly at the problems that inflation causes for business and consider whether there are any potential benefits for an enterprise from an inflationary period. Inflation varies considerably in its extent and severity. Hence, the consequences for the business community differ according to circumstances. Mild inflation of a few per cent each year may pose few difficulties for business. However, hyperinflation, which entails enormously high rates of inflation, can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business, consumers and workers. In post-war Hungary, the cost of living was published each day and workers were paid daily so as to avoid the value of their earnings falling. Businesses would have experienced great difficulty in costing and pricing their production while the incentive for people to save would have been removed.
    Economists argue at length about the causes of, and "cures" for, inflation. They would, however, recognize that two general types of inflation exist:
    - Demand-pull inflation
    - Cost-push inflation
    Demand-pull Inflation.
    Demand-pull inflation occurs when demand for a nation's goods and services outstrips that nation's ability to supply these goods and services. This causes prices to rise generally as a means of limiting demand to the available supply.
    An alternative way that we can look at this type of inflation is to say that it occurs when injections exceed withdrawals and the economy is already stretched (i.e. little available labor or factory space) and there is little scope to increase further its level of activity.

    Cost-push Inflation.
    Alternatively, inflation can be of the cost-push variety. This takes place when firms face increasing costs. This could be caused by an increase in wages owing to trade union militancy, the rising costs of imported raw materials and components or companies pushing up prices in order to improve their profit margins.

    Общее содержание текста:

    Inflation is a global phenomenon that impacts everyone. Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices for goods and services which lowers the purchasing power of money. The consequences of inflation for the business community depend on its extent and severity. Mild inflation poses few difficulties for business, while hyperinflation can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business, consumers and workers.
    Economists recognize two general types of inflation:
    - Demand-pull inflation
    - Cost-push inflation
    Ключевые слова и их перевод:

    persistent - настойчивый, упорный, стойкий
    corresponding - соответствующий
    output - продукция, выпуск продукции
    industrial output — объем промышленного производства
    purchasing power of money - покупательная способность денег
    consequences - последствия
    briefly - вкратце, коротко
    potential benefits - возможная выгода, польза
    considerably - значительно
    circumstances - обстоятельства
    mild inflation - мягкая инфляция
    enormously high rates of inflation - чрезвычайно высокие темпы инфляции
    insurmountable problems - непреодолимые проблемы
    earnings - зарплата, заработок
    incentive - стимул
    demand-pull inflation - инфляция спроса
    cost-push Inflation - инфляция издержек
    outstrip - обгонять, опережать, превосходить (в чем-л.)
    supply of goods and services - поставки товаров и услуг
    little available labor - мало рабочей силы
    increase in wages - рост заработной платы
    trade union militancy - воинственная политика профсоюзов
    push up prices - поднимать цены

    Стр. 64 TASK 5

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем:
    Inflation varies considerably in its extent and severity. Hence, the consequences for the business community differ according to circumstances. Mild inflation of a few per cent each year may pose few difficulties for business. However, hyperinflation, which entails enormously high rates of inflation, can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business, consumers and workers. In post-war Hungary, the cost of living was published each day and workers were paid daily so as to avoid the value of their earnings falling. Businesses would have experienced great difficulty in costing and pricing their production while the incentive for people to save would have been removed.
    Economists argue at length about the causes of, and "cures" for, inflation. They would, however, recognize that two general types of inflation exist:
    - Demand-pull inflation
    - Cost-push inflation

    Перевод
    Инфляция значительно варьирует в масштабах и степени тяжести. Таким образом, последствия ee для бизнес-сообщества различаются в зависимости от обстоятельств. Мягкая инфляции в несколько процентов в год может создавать незначительные трудности для бизнеса. Вместе с тем, гиперинфляция, которая влечет за собой очень высокие темпы инфляции, создает практически непреодолимые проблемы для правительства, бизнеса, для населения и трудящихся. В послевоенной Венгрии, цены на потребительские товары публиковались ежедневно, и рабочие получали зарплату ежедневно, чтобы избежать ee обесценивания. Предприятия испытывали значительные трудности при начислении цен на свои товары и расчете стоимости их производства; у людей не было стимула для сбережения денег.
    Экономисты подробно рассматривают причины и "способы лечения" инфляции. Принято считать, что существуют два основных вида инфляции:
    - Инфляция спроса - инфляция, проявляющаяся в превышении спроса над предложением.
    - Инфляция издержек - инфляция, вызванная ростом издержек производства.

    Стр. 65 TASK 6

    Answer the following questions: 1. Give the definition of inflation. What can you add to it?
      Inflation is generally defined as a persistent rise in the general price level with no corresponding rise in output, which leads to a corresponding fall in the purchasing power of money.
    2. The extent and severity of inflation.
      Mild inflation of a few per cent each year may pose few difficulties for business. However, hyperinflation, which entails enormously high rates of inflation, can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business, consumers and workers.
    3. Types of inflation (short characteristics). Are there any others?
      - Demand-pull inflation
      - Cost-push inflation

    4. Demand-pull inflation. Name countries with this type of inflation.
    5 Cost-push inflation. Name countries with this type of inflation
    6. The impact of inflation on business (in brief):
    - accounting and financial problems;
    - falling sales;
    - high interest rates.
    How can businesses influence the economic environment?
    7. Do you believe in the advice to borrow heavily in a period of inflation? Give your reasons.
    8. Can inflation be beneficial?
    9. What other factors not mentioned in this unit can cause inflation?
    10. What "cures" for inflation do you know and can suggest?