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Упражнения по переводу Английский для поступающих в вузы Tests Business English TOEFL Essays

Основные грамматические конструкции английского языка с примерами из деловой лексики

Английский для бизнеса

  • THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКАЯ СРЕДА)
  • MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY (ИЗМЕРЕНИЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ)


  • Рабочая тетрадь III семестра для экономических и управленческих специальностей
    (Контрольная работа №3)

    Второе занятие

    Стр. 36 TASK 1

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.


    The number of new products coming into the market in western countries every year is overwhelming. The major part of these products is not new, but adaptations. It means that these products are not new, they are existing items to which modification has been made. Only few products are really original or innovations. For instance a clock-television is an adaptation, but the TV-set itself, the refrigerator - each was an innovation. A great number of innovations and adaptations are designed, produced and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of the new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful. But it happens very often that market research hasn't been done carefully. Even in case larger scale producers do more research and testing there is no sure success. A promising new product may be also robbed of success by unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods. Generally less than one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.

    Общее содержание текста:
    Actually, most products coming into the market are only modifications of existing items. Original products or innovations are rare. Small businesses play major role in designing, producing and marketing of adaptations and innovations. A new business often appears with a new product. A patent helps promote the business. But there is no sure success. Generally less than one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.

    Ключевые слова:
    The number of - количество
    overwhelming - огромный, несметный
    major part - большая часть
    adaptation - приспособление, видоизменение
    existing - существующий
    innovation - новшество, нововведение
    refrigerator - холодильник
    TV-set - телевизор
    produce - производить
    success - успех
    successful - успешный
    in case - в случае
    larger scale producers - крупные производители
    market research - исследование рынка
    carefully - тщательно
    sure - уверенный
    prices - цены
    promotion - продвижение
    profitable - прибыльный

    Стр. 37 TASK 2.

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем

    It means that these products are not new, they are existing items to which modification has been made. Only few products are really original or innovations. For instance a clock-television is an adaptation, but TV-set itself, the refrigerator - each was an innovation. A great number of innovations and adaptations are designed, produced and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of the new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful. But it happens very often that market research hasn't been done carefully.
    Even in case larger scale producers do more research and testing there is no sure success. A promising new product may be also robbed of success by unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods. Generally less than one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.

    Перевод

    Это означает, что эти продукты не новы, они существуют давно, но модифицированы. Только немногие из них действительно оригинальны или являются новшеством. Например часы-телевизор - новинка среди телевизоров, но сам телевизор непосредственно, или, к примеру, холодильник — были изобретением. Большое число инноваций и изобретений разработано и внедрено в производство предприятиями малого бизнеса. Очень часто новый продукт разрабатывается новым предприятием. Чтобы сделать бизнес более успешным, важно запатентовать изобретение. Изучение рыночной конъюнктуры не всегда производится тщательным образом. Даже в том случае, когда крупные компании исследуют рынок и тестируют новый продукт, успех не гарантирован. Завышенные цены, слабое продвижение и неудачное методы продажи могут отнять успех даже у многообещающих новых продуктов . В целом, менее одной пятой всех новых товаров оказывается прибыльной

    Стр. 38 TASK 3

    Answer the following questions:
    1. How can you explain the term adaptation?
      Existing items to which modification has been made are called adaptations.
    2. What is an innovation?
      The use of a new idea or method is called an innovation.
    3. Give your own examples of innovations and adaptations.
      The 2008 Grand prix of the Russian innovations competition was given to the project «Three-leaflet artificial heart valve», developed by the company "Roscardioinvest". —Гран-при Конкурса русских инноваций получил проект «Трехстворчатый искусственный клапан сердца», разработанный компанией «Роскардиоинвест».
    4. Why are many innovations and adaptations manufactured and marketed by small businesses?
      Very often a new product is formed on the basis of the new business.
    5. Why is it so important to obtain a patent?
      A patent helps make the business more successful.
    6. Why does the failure of a new product take place?
      Unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods might be the reason for which a new product fails to be a success

    Стр. 38 TASK 4

    Fill in the following form.
    First name (имя)  
    Surname (фамилия)  
    Date of Birth (дата рождения)  
    Place of Birth (место рождения)  
    Permanent Address (постоянный адрес)  
    Marital Status (семейное положение) married/single/divorced 
    Occupation (работа, основное занятие)  
    Qualifications (квалификация)  
    Hobbies/Interests (увлечения, интересы)  
    Tel. no. (номер телефона)  

    Стр. 39 TASK 5.

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.

    A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on a business for profit. When the owners of the partnership have unlimited liability they are called general partners. If partners have limited liability they are "limited partners". There may be a silent partner as well - a person who is known to the public as a member of the firm but without authority in management. The reverse of the silent partner is the secret partner- a person who takes part in management but who is not known to the public.
    Any business may have the form of the partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage. Limited partnerships are a common form of ownership in real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc. Partnerships have more advantages than sole proprietorships if one needs a big capital or diversified management. Like sole proprietorship they are easy to form and often get tax benefits from the government.
    Partnerships have certain disadvantages too. One is unlimited liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. Another disadvantage is that partners may disagree with each other.

    Общее содержание текста:
    When carring on business for profit the owners (partners) must be liable for their obligations. While "general partners" have unlimited (full) liability, "limited partners" only have limited liability. A secret partner takes part in management but is not known to the public. A silent partner is a known member of the firm but without authority in management.
    Partnerships are a common form of ownership in certain professions such as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage.
    Starting a business with a partner one should consider both advantages and disadvantages of a partnership.

    Ключевые слова:
    partnership -
    profit - доход
    owner - владелец
    unlimited liability - неограниченная ответственность
    limited liability - ограниченная ответственность
    authority - власть, полномочия
    silent - молчаливый
    reverse - обратный, противоположный
    insurance - страхование
    stockbrokerage - биржевое маклерство
    real estate - недвижимое имущество
    oil prospecting - разведка нефтяных месторождений
    advantage - преимущество
    disadvantage - недостаток
    sole proprietorship - единоличное владение (один собственник)
    diversified - развитый, разносторонний
    tax benefits - налоговые льготы
    debts - долги, обязательства
    disagree - не прийти к согласию

    Стр. 40 TASK 6

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем:
    There may be a silent partner as well - a person who is known to the public as a member of the firm but without authority in management. The reverse of the silent partner is the secret partner - a person who takes part in management but who is not known to the public. Any business may have the form of the partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage. Limited partnerships are a common form of ownership in real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc. Partnerships have more advantages than sole proprietorships if one needs a big capital or diversified management. Like sole proprietorship they are easy to form and often get tax benefits from the government. Partnerships have certain disadvantages too. One is unlimited liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. Another disadvantage is that partners may disagree with each other.

    Перевод

    Пассивный партнер - человек, который известен общественности в качестве члена фирмы, но без права управлять. Противоположность пассивного партнера - секретный партнер - человек, который принимает участие в управлении, но не известен общественности. В таких областях как медицина, закон, бухгалтерский учет, страхование и биржевое маклерство бизнес может быть организован в форме товарищества (партнерства). Товарищества с ограниченной ответственностью - стандартная форма собственности в компаниях, занимающихся продажей недвижимого имущества, разведкой нефти, добычей ископаемых открытым спрособом, и т. д. У товариществ больше преимуществ, чем у индивидуальных предприятий, особенно, если владельцам нужен большой капитал или развитый административный аппарат. Как и фирму, находящуюся в единоличном владении, товарищество можно просто сформировать и такие предприятия часто получают налоговые льготы от правительства. У товариществ есть и определенные недостатки. Одно из них - неограниченная ответственность. Это означает, что каждый партнер ответственен за все обязательства и юридически ответственен за целый бизнес. Другое неудобство в том, что партнеры могут не прийти к общему согласию по какому-либо вопросу.

    Стр. 41 TASK 7

    Answer the following questions: 1. What is the difference between a general partnership and a limited partnership?
      While "general partners" have unlimited (full) liability, "limited partners" only have limited liability.
    2. Is there any difference between a silent partner and a secret partner? What is this difference?
      A secret partner takes part in management but is not known to the public. A silent partner is a known member of the firm but without authority in management.
    4. In what businesses is the partnership a common form?
      Partnerships are common in businesses related to medicine, law, accounting, insurance, stockbrokerage, real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc
    5. What are the advantages of a partnership?
      Tax benefits from the government, easy to start up, bigger capital.
    6. Discuss the disadvantages of a partnership. Would you prefer partnership or sole proprietorship for business? Give your reasons.
      One of the disadvantages of a partnership is unlimited liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. Another disadvantage is that partners may disagree with each other.
      One should be very careful in choosing the partner to carry on a business. They should be reliable, sensible people.