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Английский деловой язык

Упражнения по переводу Английский для поступающих в вузы Tests Business English TOEFL Essays

Основные грамматические конструкции английского языка с примерами из деловой лексики

  • THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКАЯ СРЕДА)
  • MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY (ИЗМЕРЕНИЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ)


  • Рабочая тетрадь III семестра для экономических и управленческих специальностей
    (Контрольная работа №3)

    Третье занятие

    Стр. 47 TASK 1.

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.


    Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally, indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales. Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell. Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.

    Общее содержание текста:

    Wholesaling provides distribution channels for bringing goods to the market. There are indirect and direct channels. Wholesailing is often small business, but the tendency is for growing units. Merchant wholesalers take title to the goods they deal in, while agent middlemen don't. Agent middlemen receive commissions for negotiating purchases or sales. Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. The store-keepers deal with only a few wholesalers.

    Ключевые слова и их перевод:

    manufacturer - изготовитель, производитель
    wholesaler - оптовик, оптовый торговец
    consumer goods - потребительские товары
    take title to goods - торг. брать (принимать) право собственности на товар
    account for - давать отчет; объяснять(ся)
    a quarter of - четверть
    middleman - посредник, комиссионер, агент
    merchant wholesalers - оптовый торговец
    purchase - покупка
    sale - продажа
    negotiate - вести переговоры, договариваться
    take possession - стать владельцем, приобрести
    commissions - вознаграждение агента, коммиссионные
    percentage of the value - процент от стоимости
    simplify - упрощать
    stock - товар в наличии, запас
    to stock - запасать, хранить на складе
    grocery - бакалейные товары
    retail - розничная продажа
    druggist - аптека
    reduce - понижать, сокращать, уменьшать

    Стр. 49 TASK 2.

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем
    Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales. Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell. Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.

    Перевод
    Оптовая торговля часто является сферой малого бизнеса, но в западных странах идет укрупнение таких предприятий. Четверть оптовых торговцев осуществляют третью часть общего объема продаж. Две трети посредников в оптовой торговле - оптовые продавцы, которые прибретают в собственность товары, с которыми имеют дело. Есть также агенты-посредники, которые ведут переговоры о закупке или продаже. Они не приобретают в собственность товары, о которых договариваются. Хотя иногда бывают исключения. Агенты-посредники не получают зарплату. Они получают комиссионные, то есть процент от стоимости товаров, которые они продают. Оптовые торговцы упрощают процесс сбыта товаров. Например, средний супермаркет имеет 5.000 наименований одних только бакалейных товаров, а в мелкой розничной аптеке может быть больше чем 6.000 наименований. Поскольку оптовый торговец имеет в обороте большой ассортимент товаров от многочисленных изготовителей, он решает многие проблемы и изготовителя и розничного продавца. Владелец магазина не должен иметь дело непосредственно с тысячами поставщиков. Чтобы обеспечить хорошее снабжение магазина, ему достаточно заключить договора только с несколькими оптовыми торговцами.

    Стр. 50 TASK 3

    Answer the following questions:

    1. What is the aim of the wholesaling?

      It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market.
    2. How can you describe a direct channel of distribution?
      A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.
    3. What is an indirect channel of distribution?
      Indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels.
    4. What channel of distribution is preferable?
      A direct channel is more preferable since it reduces the number of middleman.
    5. Is there any difference between a merchant wholesaler and an agent middleman? What is this difference?
      Merchant wholesalers take title to the goods they deal in. Agent middlemen negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in.
    6. How does a wholesaler simplify the process of distribution?
      A wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers.
    7. What would a retailer have to do without wholesalers?
      Without wholesalers the store-keeper would have to deal directly with thousands of different manufacturers.

    Стр. 50 TASK 4

    Fill in the following form.

    Mr/Mrs/Ms (Мистер / Миссис / Мисс)
    Family name (фамилия)  
    Surname (фамилия) 
    Date of Birth (дата рождения)  
    Nationality (национальность)  
    Language(s) (язык(и)) 
    Address in your country (адрес в вашей стране) 
    Occupation (работа, занятие)  
    Reason for learning English: Business /pleasure/exams/other (if other, please specify). (Цель изучения языка: бизнес/туризм/экзамен/другое (если другое, уточните).)  
    How many hours a day do you want to study? (Сколько часов в день вы хотите заниматься?) 
    How long are you going to stay at the school? (Как долго вы собираетесь пробыть в школе?) 
    What date do you want to start? (Когда вы хотите начать?)  

    Стр. 51 TASK 5

    Беспереводное понимание текста:
    - изложить кратко общее содержание текста, выделив ключевые слова, которые и определяют содержание текста;
    - дать перевод ключевых слов.

    All products and all services have prices. The price depends on different thing such as credit terms, delivery, trade-in allowance, guarantees, quality and other forms of service. It's hardly possible to determine such a price which can produce the biggest profit during a long period of time. The price may be too high to produce a large volume or too low to cover costs. No other area of marketing operations has been a subject to bad practice. Many businesses persue unsound price policies for long periods of time and are not aware about it.
    Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices of meat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large central market where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the amount and price of goods sold to large number of buyers is controlled by a few competing sellers. Prices also can be set by the government, usually for different public services: rail­roads, electricity, manufactured gas, bus services, etc.
    If demand increases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related in price, since the consumer can buy and must pay for everything out of a particular, limited amount of money.

    Общее содержание текста:
    All products and all services have prices. The price aims at bringing the biggest profit during a long period of time. Meanwhile there are many factors which should be considered. Setting unsound prices is bad practice.
    Prices can be determined by price competition or set by the government. Ultimately, the consumer limits the price by paying the amount of money available.

    Ключевые слова и их перевод:

    credit terms - кредитные условия
    delivery - доставка
    quality - качество
    to cover costs - покрывать затраты
    trade-in allowance - скидка при встречной продаже, зачетная скидка (сумма денег, отданная за старую вещь и включенная в счет покупки новой)
    to pursue unsound price policies - вести неразумную ценообразовательную политику
    to set prices - устанавливать цены
    supply and demand - предложение и спрос
    price competition - конкуренция в ценообразовании

    Стр. 52 TASK 6.

    Выполнить письменный адекватный перевод со словарем:
    The price depends on different thing such as credit terms, delivery, trade-in allowance, guarantees, quality and other forms of service. It's hardly possible to determine such a price which can produce the biggest profit during a long period of time. Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices of meat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large central market where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the amount and price of goods sold to large number of buyers is controlled by a few competing sellers. Prices also can be set by the government, usually for different public services: rail­roads, electricity, manufactured gas, bus services, etc. If demand increases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related in price, since the consumer can buy and must pay for everything out of a particular, limited amount of money.

    Перевод
    Цена зависит от разных факторов, таких как условия кредита, условия поставки, скидки, гарантии, качество, формы обслуживания. Достаточно трудно установить такую цену, которая принесет наибольшую выгоду на длительный промежуток времени. Цены могут быть установлены различными путями. Например, цены на мясо, хлопок и цены на другую сельскохозяйственную продукцию могут быть установлены на больших рынках, где действуют законы спроса и предложения. Это чистая ценовая конкуренция. Цены на промышленную продукцию (железо, сталь и т.д.) обычно устанавливаются большими компаниями. Как правило, количество и цена товаров, продаваемых (предлагаемых) большому числу покупателей, устанавливается несколькими конкурирующими продавцами (производителями). Цены также могут быть установлены правительством, обычно для предприятий коммунального обслуживания (цены на электричество, газ, и т.д), а также для железнодорожного и автобусного сообщения. Если спрос на товар увеличивается, цены повышаются, прибыль растет, привлекаются новые капиталовложения . Могут быть вовлечены и другие факторы. Цены соотносятся друг с другом по-разному. В конечном счете, все связано с ценой — ведь потребитель покупает и платит лишь исходя из суммы имеющихся денег..

    Стр. 53 TASK 7

    Answer the following questions:

    1. Why is it difficult to determine the right price?

      The price depends on many things. It's hardly possible to determine such a price which can produce the biggest profit during a long period of time.
    2. Why is the seller interested in the price that produces the highest volume of sales at the lowest unit cost?
      Because such a price brings the biggest profit.
    3.Why do many businesses follow unsound pricing policies?
      Many businesses set prises unwisely, pursuing their own interest.
    4. In what way are agricultural prices decided?
      The prices of meat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large central market where forces of supply and demand exist.
    5. How are industrial products usually priced?
      The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies.
    6. Why does the government usually set the prices for public utility services?
      The government usually sets the prices for public utility services in order to control these prices.
    7. Why is it so important to know the levels of supply and demand when dealing with pricing?
      The right price for the item reflects the balance between supply and demand for it.
    8. Why is everything related by price?
      Price is everything in business. The right price can lead to significant sales, because the consumer wants the product at that price he can pay.

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