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The Absolute Participle Construction
Независимый причастный оборот

1. Other things being equal, an increase in wage rates will increase the cost of labour relative to the cost of other factors.
2. The production of the Liberty ships showed similar effects, the first taking many months to build and the last only three days.

3. In order to simplify the analysis we can consider two firms, one being representative of high-cost producers and the other of low-cost producers.
4. Most industries make use of a variety of machines, each machine carrying out a different operation.
5. The principle of action being rather simple, the new device was widely used for different purposes.
6. The selling price must relate to the production cost, which in turn, depends on the quantity sold, this quantity being dependent upon the sales price.
7. It being too late, they decided to stop working.
8. Other things being equal, the demand for a commodity will tend to vary directly as the price of its substitute.
9. The installation was atomised last year, its capacity rising by 20 per cent.
10. All the problems having been solved, they went home.
11. The goods having been loaded, the dockworkers left the port.
12. Member nations are required to subscribe to the capital stock of the World Bank, each being given a quota which is related to the member's national income and position in the world trade.
13. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has projected world growth at 4.3 per cent with advanced economies growing by 2.7 per cent.