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Unit 10 The right choice

  • Reading

  • Vocabulary

  • Grammar

  • Writing
  • Reading

    1 Definitions

    Before you read the text, match these words with their meanings.

    1 crater

    2 lava flow

    3 erupt

    4 dormant

    5 icecap

    a not active for some time

    b explode and throw out fire and melted rock

    с permanent covering of ice, usually in polar regions

    d hole at the top of a volcano

    e hot liquid rock that comes out of a volcano

    crater - hole at the top of a volcano

    lava flow - hot liquid rock that comes out of a volcano

    erupt - explode and throw out fire and melted rock

    dormant - not active for some time

    icecap - permanent covering of ice, usually in polar regions

    2 Scanning

    Scan the text and answer this question. What kinds of risk does Hazel take in her job?

    Exam training

    Multiple choice questions
    In the exam, you may have to answer multiple choice questions. Remember to:

    1 read the text to get a general idea.

    2 read the questions only, and underline the answers in the text.

    3 choose the option (a, b, с or d) that best matches the underlined text.

    woman at work

    Given the choice, most people would prefer not to climb a live volcano. But for Hazel Rymer, it's all in a day's work, and she loves her job.

    1 Studying volcanoes is a demanding profession. Hazel Rymer frequently has to struggle through rainforests, climb to the top of mountains, then climb 200 metres into the crater of active volcanoes. But the 38-year-old volcanologist does her best to make it sound less alarming than it is. 'Driving to work is more risky,' she insists. 'And the deepest I go into the crater of a volcano is about 300 metres. I generally just scramble down then scramble back up again', she adds, trying to make it all sound as ordinary as taking the dog for a walk.

    2 Hazel has been studying volcanoes for a long time, so it's not surprising she is used to the danger. Her interest in volcanoes began while she was learning Latin at school. A teacher gave her a book about Pompeii.'I remember reading about the eruption of Vesuvius and the destruction of the city,' she explains. 'The thought of all those Pompeiians just frozen in time had quite an effect on me.' Twenty years later, this fascination is still strong. 'I suppose you sense that volcanoes have this dangerous beauty, and that never leaves you', she smiles. 'I still get excited when I approach one I haven't encountered before.'

    3 Nowadays, volcanoes are getting more and more unpredictable. There have been many changes in sea level caused by global warming and melting icecaps. These have resulted in some dormant volcanoes erupting, so studying them is more hazardous than ever before. Hazel seems unconcerned. 'I don't take any unnecessary risks and I don't try to make situations dangerous', she says. 'If things happen, they happen.' However, she has had some frightening moments. Her worst experience was on the slopes of Mount Etna in Sicily. While she was taking measurements on the edge of the lava flow, she was slowly surrounded by lava. 'I had a choice of walking hours to get around the lava flow or just walking across it', she explains. She chose to pick a path across the cooler rocks in the lava stream. 'I guess it was 50 metres. The flow was 1,000 °C, so if you hesitated your boots would begin to melt. It was scary, but it really was a practical decision - there wasn't time to do anything else.'

    4 And what about the future? 'I haven't been to the volcanoes in Indonesia yet. And I would love to spend some time working in the Antarctic', she says. 'I would also like to know why quiet lava flows erupt from some volcanoes and why other volcanoes go bang.' In other words, Hazel Rymer won't be exchanging her volcanoes for the relative safety of driving to work just yet.

    Sainsbury's The Magazine

    3 Multiple choice questions

    Now choose the best answer to questions 1-5 below.

    1 According to Hazel, which activity is more dangerous?
      a making your way through rainforests

      b going deep inside volcanoes

      c travelling by car

      d climbing mountains

    2 When did Hazel first become interested in volcanoes?
      a when she was visiting Italy

      b when she was at school

      c when she was twenty

      d when she saw Vesuvius

    3 What does 'these' in line 26 refer to?
      a melting icecaps

      b changes in sea level

      c volcanic eruptions

      d higher temperatures

    4 When Hazel was on Mount Etna she had to:
      a walk fort ten hours around the mountain.

      b take an unnecessary risk.

      c leave her boots behind.

      d take a dangerous route.

    5 In the future Hazel wants to:
      a revisit volcanoes she knows.

      b go on holiday to the Antarctic.

      c find a less dangerous job.

      d discover new things about volcanoes.

    ANSWERS: 1C 2B 3B 4D 5D

    4 Meanings

    Find words or expressions in the text for these meanings.

    Paragraph 1

    1 a job that requires training – profession

    2 to try very hard to do something difficult – to do one’s best

    3 to climb quickly up or down something using your hands – to scramble

    Paragraph 2

    4 stay the same way forever – to be frozen in time

    5 to experience or find something unusual or new – to encounter

    Paragraph 3

    6 unexpected - unpredictable

    7 very unsafe – hazardous

    8 not worried about something - unconcerned

    9 to carefully find your way across something – to pick a path

    10 to pause before you do something because you are uncertain – to hesitate

    Paragraph 4

    11 give or receive something in return for something else – to exchange

    12 not dangerous when compared to something else – relatively safe

    Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Reading. In the mind's eye.
    Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Vocabulary. Phrasal verbs with more than one meaning.
    Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Grammar. Modals. Remember + ing or to-inf.
    Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Writing descriptions. Travel and sightseeing.

    Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Reading. A sense of identity.
    Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Vocabulary. Crime. Match the people with the definitions.
    Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Grammar. Present simple, present continuous and present perfect.
    Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Writing a profile. Words describing appearance.

    Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Reading. BRINGING the past to life.

    Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Vocabulary. TV programmes.
    Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Grammar. Regular and Irregular Verbs.
    Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Writing a Talk. The Millenium Dome.

    Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Reading. The man who really founded New York.
    Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Vocabulary. Nouns, verbs, adjectives.
    Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Grammar. The Future. Will.
    Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Writing a letter of complaint.

    Unit 5. FAME AND FORTUNE. Reading. A dream come true? How winning a lottery can affect your life?
    Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Vocabulary. Prepositions. Money.
    Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Grammar. Modals. Language patterns: verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive with to.
    Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Writing a composition. The Lottery.

    Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Vocabulary. Phrasal verbs with take.
    Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Grammar. Relative pronoun. Who, whom, which or that Quiz. Purpose and result. Language patterns: verb + direct object + (to) do.
    Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Writing a biography.

    Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Reading. Getting your Message Across.
    Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Vocabulary. Adjectives ending in -ed an -ing. Feelings. Body language.
    Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Grammar. Present perfect and past simple; present perfect simple and continuous; the passive.

    Unit 8. WHAT IF ... ? Reading. Poets and pop stars.
    Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Vocabulary. Words to do with poetry and music.
    Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Grammar. Conditionals. The verbs tell, talk, say and speak.
    Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Writing a discursive composition. An ideal job.

    Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Reading. A trip to America.
    Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Vocabulary. Describing a journey.
    Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Grammar. Past simple, past continuous or past perfect? Reflexive verbs.
    Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Writing a story. My holiday nightmare.

    Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Reading. DANGER: woman at work.
    Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Vocabulary. Negative prefixes. Phrasal verbs give up • get on • turn down • take on • fit in
    Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Grammar. Reported Speech. Direct and indirect objects.
    Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Writing a job application.