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Unit 6 Taking risks

Additional

  • Who, Whom, That, Which Quiz
  • Grammar

    4 Relative pronouns

    Look at this conversation with Matthew Black, an expert on extreme weather. Complete gaps a-g with who, which, whose, where or that.

    Presenter 1 We are more likely to be run over by a car than struck by lightning. Is this true?

    Matthew Yes, it is. 2 People are afraid of lightning. It's easy to understand the reason. However, there is only a four million to one chance of lightning striking you.

    Presenter But aren't there some people a............... have been struck by lightning more than once?

    Matthew Yes, there are, but these cases are very rare. In California, there is a man b............... has been hit by lightning seven times.

    Presenter And he is still alive?

    Matthew Yes, he is. 3 He survived. I don't know how he did it.

    Presenter But 4 what should I do if I am caught in a storm? Can you tell me?

    Matthew Well, don't stand near a tree. 5 You shouldn't stand under a tree or near a telegraph pole. Most people know the reason for this. It's because lightning always strikes the object c.............. is the highest.

    Presenter 6 Are there other precautions? People should know about them.

    Matthew If there is a building d ............... you can shelter, you ought to go to it, and make sure you close the windows.

    Presenter So lightning doesn't strike buildings very often?

    Matthew Actually, it does. There is a famous building in New York e............... is struck about twenty times a year.

    Presenter You mean the Empire State Building?

    Matthew That's right. But the people f.............. are inside are safe!

    Presenter Do you know any other unusual stories about lightning?

    Matthew One of the most amazing stories is about a blind man g ............... eyesight returned during a storm. After he was struck by lightning, he could see again. 7 No one can explain it. They don't know how it happened.


    Presenter l We are more likely to be run over by a car than struck by lightning. Is this true?

    Matthew Yes, it is. 2 People are afraid of lightning. It's easy to understand the reason. However, there is only a four million to one chance of lightning striking you.

    Presenter But aren't there some people who have been struck by lightning more than once?

    Matthew Yes, there are, but these cases are very rare. In California, there is a man who has been hit by lightning seven times.

    Presenter And he is still alive?

    Matthew Yes, he is. 3 He survived. I don't know how he did it.

    Presenter But 4 what should I do if I am caught in a storm? Can you tell me?

    Matthew Well, don't stand near a tree. 5 You shouldn't stand under a tree or near a telegraph pole. Most people know the reason for this. It's because lightning always strikes the object which is the highest.

    Presenter 6 Are there other precautions? People should know about them.

    Matthew If there is a building where you can shelter, you ought to go to it, and make sure you close the windows.

    Presenter So lightning doesn't strike buildings very often?

    Matthew Actually, it does. There is a famous building in New York which is struck about twenty times a year.

    Presenter You mean the Empire State Building?

    Matthew That's right. But the people who are inside are safe!

    Presenter Do you know any other unusual stories about lightning?

    Matthew One of the most amazing stories is about a blind man whose eyesight returned during a storm. After he was struck by lightning, he could see again. 7 No one can explain it. They don't know how it happened.


    9 Noun clauses

    A Combine sentences 1-7 to make noun clauses.

    Example 1

    Is it true that we are more likely to be run over by a car than struck by lightning?

    It's easy to understand why people are afraid of lightning.

    I don't know how he survived.

    Can you tell me what to do if I am caught in a storm?

    Most people know the reason why they shouldn't stand under a tree or near a telegraph pole.

    People should know if there are other precautions.

    No one can explain how it happened.

    В In which of the noun clauses in 1-7 can you omit the pronoun?

    10 Purpose and result

    A Decide which of the sentences in 1-6 describe purpose and which describe result.

    1 Mark went to Switzerland. He wanted to snowboard. - purpose

    2 The trainers looked awful. I took them back to the shop. - result

    3 Zoe saved her money. She was able to buy a motorbike. - purpose

    4 Paul looked different. I hardly recognised him! - result

    5 The film was boring. Sue left early. - result

    6 Maria trained very hard. She wanted to do the parachute jump. - purpose

    В Now combine the sentences using either:

    so + adjective / adverb + that (result)

    Example Mark went to Switzerland so that he could snowboard.

    or:
    so that + sentence (purpose)

    Example The trainers looked so awful that I took them back to the shop.

    1 Mark went to Switzerland so that he could snowboard.

    2 The trainers looked so awful that I took them back to the shop.

    3 Zoe saved her money so that she was able to buy a motorbike.

    4 Paul looked so different that I hardly recognised him!

    5 The film was so boring that Sue left early.

    6 Maria trained very hard so that she could do the parachute jump.


    11 Language patterns: verb + direct object + (to) do

    A In the article Steve Edmonds says I've seen someone jump off buildings in San Diego. Look at these rules:

    • We use some verbs with a direct object plus an infinitive without to. The mountain climber heard someone shout for help.

    • We use many verbs with a direct object and an infinitive with to.

    High Five wanted Mehgan to appear on the show.

    • We can use help with or without to without changing the meaning.

    Luke helped me (to) get a ticket for the X-games.

    В Correct the mistakes in these sentences. Two sentences are correct.

    1 Everyone dared Zoe do the bungee jump.
    Everyone dared Zoe to do the bungee jump. - correct

    2 My sports teacher encouraged me take up basketball.
    My sports teacher encouraged me to take up basketball. - correct

    3 Millions of viewers watched Mike Frost to go sky-surfing.
    Millions of viewers watched Mike Frost go sky-surfing. - correct

    4 Could you tell Amy meet me at the cafe?
    Could you tell Amy to meet me at the cafe? - correct

    5 My best friend always makes me tell her my secrets.
    My best friend always makes me tell her my secrets. - correct

    6 Please let me to help you carry those bags.
    Please let me help you carry those bags. - correct

    7 Paul invited me to go rollerblading in the park.
    Paul invited me to go rollerblading in the park. - correct

    8 My brother taught me play football.
    My brother taught me to play football. - correct


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