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Unit 3 Times past


1 Scanning

Scan the text and answer questions 1-4.

Exam training

Scanning Remember that when you scan a text you are looking for specific information.

7 Read the text quickly and don't worry about unknown words. You don't need to read for detail.

2 When you have found the information, stop and underline it.

1 What did Kathryn have to do as a nineteenth-century teenager? Look for two things in paragraph 1.

    She was forced to wear shapeless dresses and was sent to bed at 8 p.m. every night.
2 How did Kathryn feel a lot of the time? Look for an adjective that describes feelings in paragraph 2.

3 Which everyday items did Kathryn miss most? She mentions three things in paragraph 3.

    hair gel, shampoo and make-up
4 How did the experience affect Kathryn? Look for an adjective which describes how she has changed in paragraph 4.


the past to life

1 Kathryn Bowler doesn't look like a teenager who's been to hell and back, but the 17-year-old has just spent three months in a dark and dirty nineteenth-century house with the rest of her family. For all this time, Kathryn didn't have a hairdryer, CDs or her own clothes. She was forced to wear shapeless dresses and was sent to bed at 8 p.m. every night. Kathryn wasn't being punished, and she hadn't committed a crime. In fact she and her family were taking part in a television documentary called 1900 House. The documentary was an experiment to see how much everyday life has improved since the last century. For three months, the Bowlers agreed to turn back the clock and only use household appliances, cook food and wear clothes that were available in 1900. A film crew visited regularly to record how the family coped with their change of lifestyle.

2 So what was life like in 1900? 'It wasn't too difficult to be a child in the nineteenth century,' says Kathryn. 'My12-year-old twin sisters and 9-year-old brother had a great time - they just kept on being children. But it was more difficult for me. Girls didn't stay at home if they were old enough to find a job as a maid. If they did live at home, they were trying to find someone to marry.' Kathryn spent some of her time helping her mother with the household chores, but most of the time she was bored. 'In Victorian life I felt left out,' she explains. 'There just wasn't enough for teenagers to do. 17-year-old Victorian girls had a really tedious time.'

3 Then there were the clothes. Kathryn had to tie her hair back, wear no make-up and only had three outfits. 'All I could put on was a blouse that hadn't been washed in two months and a long skirt,' she says. 'You couldn't go through your wardrobe and think, I'll wear this or that today.' But most of all she missed her hair gel, shampoo and make-up. 'I feel stupid that those things were important, but I was used to using them everyday.' She also felt permanently dirty. The house was covered in a layer of coal dust from the coal fire, and they were only allowed one bath every other day. 'If you had a bath at night you'd wake up in the morning with dust on your skin. It was awful,' she said.

4 Fortunately, Kathryn has a strong character, so she didn't give up. But did the experience change her? 'When I look back, I think it made the family closer she says. 'We communicate better now because we couldn't run away from problems, we had to deal with them. And after the experience, my parents said how much more grown-up I had become. I think we all matured.'
The Independent on Sunday

*Victorian = period when Britain was ruled by Queen Victoria (1837-1901)

Exam training

A summary sentence Before you choose a summary sentence read the whole paragraph carefully. Remember, the summary sentence must summarise the whole paragraph, not just part of it.

2 Summarising the paragraphs

Decide which sentence, a or b, is an accurate summary of paragraphs 1-4.

Paragraph 1
    a The TV documentary showed how much everyday life had changed since 1900. - correct

    b The TV documentary showed how much the Bowlers missed modern-day life.
Paragraph 2
    a Teenage girls were not welcome at home.

    b There wasn't any teenage culture in Victorian times. - correct
Paragraph 3
    a Kathryn never felt clean. - correct

    b Kathryn had nothing to wear.
Paragraph 4
    a The experience helped the family understand each other better. - correct

    b The experience helped Kathryn develop a strong character.

3 Meanings

These words and phrases are in the article. Choose the best meaning, a, b or c.

1 coped with (line 23)
    a organised     b enjoyed     c managed
2 left out (line 39)
    a not included     b ignored     c different
3 tedious (line 42)
    a dull     b difficult     c slow
4 permanently (line 56)
    a a little     b very     c all the time
5 give up (line 64)
    a get upset     b leave, abandon     c complain
coped with - managed

left out - not included

tedious - dull

permanently - all the time

give up - leave, abandon

Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Reading. In the mind's eye.
Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Vocabulary. Phrasal verbs with more than one meaning.
Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Grammar. Modals. Remember + ing or to-inf.
Unit 1. BORN TO BE BRILLIANT. Writing descriptions. Travel and sightseeing.

Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Reading. A sense of identity.
Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Vocabulary. Crime. Match the people with the definitions.
Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Grammar. Present simple, present continuous and present perfect.
Unit 2. THE WRONG MAN. Writing a profile. Words describing appearance.

Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Reading. BRINGING the past to life.

Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Vocabulary. TV programmes.
Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Grammar. Regular and Irregular Verbs.
Unit 3. TIMES PAST. Writing a Talk. The Millenium Dome.

Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Reading. The man who really founded New York.
Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Vocabulary. Nouns, verbs, adjectives.
Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Grammar. The Future. Will.
Unit 4. SMALL BEGINNINGS. Writing a letter of complaint.

Unit 5. FAME AND FORTUNE. Reading. A dream come true? How winning a lottery can affect your life?
Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Vocabulary. Prepositions. Money.
Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Grammar. Modals. Language patterns: verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive with to.
Unit 5.  FAME AND FORTUNE. Writing a composition. The Lottery.

Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Vocabulary. Phrasal verbs with take.
Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Grammar. Relative pronoun. Who, whom, which or that Quiz. Purpose and result. Language patterns: verb + direct object + (to) do.
Unit 6. TAKING RISKS. Writing a biography.

Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Reading. Getting your Message Across.
Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Vocabulary. Adjectives ending in -ed an -ing. Feelings. Body language.
Unit 7. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Grammar. Present perfect and past simple; present perfect simple and continuous; the passive.

Unit 8. WHAT IF ... ? Reading. Poets and pop stars.
Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Vocabulary. Words to do with poetry and music.
Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Grammar. Conditionals. The verbs tell, talk, say and speak.
Unit 8.  WHAT IF ... ? Writing a discursive composition. An ideal job.

Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Reading. A trip to America.
Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Vocabulary. Describing a journey.
Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Grammar. Past simple, past continuous or past perfect? Reflexive verbs.
Unit 9. TRAVELLERS' TALES. Writing a story. My holiday nightmare.

Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Reading. DANGER: woman at work.
Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Vocabulary. Negative prefixes. Phrasal verbs give up • get on • turn down • take on • fit in
Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Grammar. Reported Speech. Direct and indirect objects.
Unit 10. THE RIGHT CHOICE. Writing a job application.