Murphy 1998 Contents / Ñîäåðæàíèå ó÷åáíèêà ãðàììàòèêè 1998 ãîäà ïîä ðåäàêöèåé Ðåéìîíäà Ìåðôè.
- Unit 35. If and wish sentences (present)
- Unit 36. If and wish sentences (past)
- Unit 37. Would
- Unit 38. In case
- Unit 39. Unless, as long as, and provided / providing (that)
- Unit 40. Passive (1) (be done and have been done)
- Unit 41. Passive (2) (present and past tenses)
- Unit 42. Passive (3)
- Unit 43. It is said that…/ He is said to…, etc., and supposed to
- Unit 44. Have something done
- Unit 45. Reported speech (1)
- Unit 46. Reported speech (2)
- Unit 47. Questions (1)
- Unit 48. Questions (2) (Do you know where…? / He asked me where…)
- Unit 49. Auxiliary verbs in short answers/ questions, etc.: So/Neither am I, etc.
- Unit 50. Tag questions (are you? doesn’t he?, etc.)
- Unit 51. Verb +ing
- Unit 52. Verb + infinitive
- Unit 53. Verb + object + infinitive
- Unit 54. Infinitive or -ing? (1) – like, would like, etc.
- Unit 55. Infinitive or -ing? (2) – begin, start, continue, remember, try
- Unit 56. Preposition + -ing
- Unit 57. Verb + preposition + -ing
- Unit 58. Expressions + -ing
- Unit 59. Be/get used to something (I’m used to…)
- Unit 60. Infinitive of purpose – “I went out to mail a letter.” So that…
- Unit 61. Prefer and would rather
- Unit 62. Had better do something… It’s time someone did something
- Unit 63. See someone do and see someone doing
- Unit 64. -ing clauses -”Feeling tired, I went to bed early.”
- Unit 65. Uncountable nouns (gold, music, advice, etc.)
- Unit 66. Countable nouns with a/an and some
- Unit 67. A/an and the
- Unit 68. The (1)
- Unit 69. The (2)
- Unit 70. Plural and uncountable nouns with and without the (flowers/the flowers)
- Unit 71. School / the school, prison / the prison, etc.
- Unit 72. Geographical names with and without the
- Unit 73. Names of streets, buildings, etc. with and without the
- Unit 74. Singular or plural?
- Unit 75. … ‘s (apostrophe s) and … of…
- Unit 76. Reflexive pronouns (myself / yourself, etc.), by myself
- Unit 77. “A friend of mine,” “my own house”
- Unit 78. All / all of, no / none of, most / most of, etc.
- Unit 79. Both/both of, neither / neither of, either / either of
- Unit 80. Some and any…Some/any + -one/-body/-thing/-where
- Unit 81. No/none/any No/any + one/-body/-thing/-where
- Unit 82. Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty
- Unit 83. All, every, and whole
- Unit 84. Relative clauses (1) – clauses with who/that/which
- Unit 85. Relative clauses (2) – clauses with or without who/that
- Unit 86. Relative clauses (3) – whose, whom, and where
- Unit 87. Relative clauses (4) – “extra information” clauses (1)
- Unit 88. Relative clauses (5) – “extra information” clauses (2)
- Unit 89. -ing and -ed clauses (“the woman I talking to Tom,” “the man injured in the accident”)
- Unit 90. Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored, etc.)
- Unit 91. Adjectives: Word order (“a nice new house”) After verbs (“Do you feel tired?”)
- Unit 92. Adjectives and adverbs (1) (quick/quickly)
- Unit 93. Adjectives and adverbs (2) (good/well, fast/hard/late, hardly)
- Unit 94. So and such
- Unit 95. Enough and too.
- Unit 96. The infinitive after adjectives
- Unit 97. Comparison (1) – cheaper, more expensive, etc.
- Unit 98. Comparison (2)
- Unit 99. Comparison (3) – as… as/than
- Unit 100. Superlatives – the longest, the most enjoyable, etc.
- Unit 101. Word order (1) -verb + objects-place and time.
- Word order (2) – adverbs with the verb.
- Unit 103. Still and yet Anymore / any longer / no longer
- Unit 104. Although / though / even though… In spite of / despite
- Unit 105. Even
- Unit 106. As (time) – “I watched her as she worked.” As (reason) – “As I was feeling tired, I went to bed.”
- Unit 107. Like and as
- Unit 108. As if
- Unit 109. At/on/in (time)
- Unit 110. For, during and while
- Unit 111. By and until By the time…
- Unit 112. Unit 112. In/at/on (position) (1)
- Unit 113. Unit 113. In/at/on (position) (2)
- Unit 114. To, been to, into By car/in my car
- Unit 115. Noun + preposition (“reason for,” “cause of,” etc.)
- Unit 116. Preposition + noun (“by mistake,” “on television,” etc.)
- Unit 117. Adjective + preposition (1)
- Unit 118. Adjective + preposition (2)
- Unit 119. Verb + preposition (1)
- Unit 120. Verb + preposition (2)
- Unit 121. Verb + preposition (3)
- Unit 122. Verb + object + preposition (1)
- Unit 123. Verb + object + preposition (2)
- Unit 124. Phrasal verbs (get up, break down, fill in, etc.)
Unit 34. If sentences (present / future)
Compare these examples:
Tom: I think I left my lighter at your house. Have you seen it? Ann: No, but I’ll look. If I find it, I’ll give it to you.
In this example there is a real possibility that Ann will find the lighter. So she says: “If I find… I’ll…” (see also Unit 9c).
Ann: If I found a $100 bill on the street, I would keep it.
This is a different type of situation. Ann is not thinking about a real possibility; she is imagining the situation. So she says: “If I found… I would…” (not “If I find … I’ll … “).
When you imagine a future happening like this, you use a past tense form (did/came/found, etc.) after if. But the meaning is not past:
What would you do if you won a million dollars?
If we didn’t go to their party next week, they would be very angry.
Ann wouldn’t lend me any money if I asked her.
I’d be very frightened if someone pointed a gun at me. (not if someone would point)
If we didn’t go to their party next week, they would be angry, (not if we wouldn’t go)
We do not normally use would in the if part of the sentence:
Sometimes it is possible to say if… would, especially when you ask someone to do something in a formal way:
I would be very grateful if you would send me your brochure and price list as soon as possible, (from a formal letter)
If you stopped smoking, you’d probably feel healthier.
They wouldn’t come to the party if you invited them. You can also use could and might:
They might be angry if I didn’t visit them. (= perhaps they would be)
If it stopped raining, we could go out. (= we would be able to go out)
In the other part of the sentence (not the if part) we use would/wouldn’t. Would is often shortened to ‘d, especially in spoken English:
Tom would be angry if I didn’t visit him. (not when I didn’t visit)
What would you do if you were bitten by a snake? (not when you were) See also Unit 9c.
Do not use when in sentences like the ones in this unit:
For if sentences see also Units 35 and 36.