Unit 89. -ing and -ed clauses (“the woman I talking to Tom,” “the man injured in the accident”)

For see/hear someone doing something see Unit 63.

When you are talking about things (and sometimes people), you can use an -ing clause for permanent characteristics (what something does all the time, not just at a particular time):

  • The road joining the two villages is very narrow, (the road joins the two villages)

  • I live in a pleasant room overlooking the garden, (the room overlooks the garden)

    -ed clauses have a passive meaning:

  • The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital, (the man was injured in the accident)

  • None of the people invited to the party can come, (the people have been invited to the party)

    Injured and invited are past participles. Many verbs have irregular past participles that do not end in -ed. For example: stolen/made/bought/written, etc.:

  • The money stolen in the robbery was never found, (the money was stolen in the robbery)

  • Most of the goods made in this factory are exported, (the goods are made in this factory)

    For a full list of irregular verbs see Appendix 2.

    We often use -ing and -ed clauses after there is / there was, etc.:

  • Is there anybody waiting to see me?

  • There were some children swimming in the river.

  • When I arrived, there was a big red car parked outside the house.
    For more information about -ing clauses see Unit 64.
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