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The United Kingdom (UK). History and today

A short history of Great Britain
The British Isles

Пять основных событий, которые сформировали историю английского языка (текст с переводом).
Customs and traditions of Great Britain

A short history of Britain

Краткий обзор истории Великобритании с наиболее значимыми датами британской истории.

3500BC Early Man

The British Isles were inhabited by Neolithic Man.

800BC Celtic invasions.

The Celts mixed with the original inhabitants.

54BC Roman invasions

The Romans conquered England and Wales and stayed for 400 years. Hadrian's Wall was built between England and Scotland, which remained independent.

450AD Anglo-Saxon invasions.

Angles, Saxons and Jutes started to colonise Britain when the Romans left. By 600AD, they were well established in most of Britain.

800AD Viking raids.

The Vikings raided the east coast of Britain and some settled. In 885 the Danes were given a large part of northern England, which was known as the Danelaw, and Danish kings ruled England from 1016-42.

1066 The Norman Conquest

The Normans under William the Conqueror defeated the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. Normans replaced Saxons in most positions of authority and, for a while, French was the more important language. Eventually the two races and the two languages merged to become English.

1215 A treaty called the Magna Carta was signed by King John and his lords. It is an important document on the long road to democracy in that it limits the king's rights and establishes the rights of his subjects.

1282 Wales was conquered by the English king.

1564 William Shakespeare was born: the greatest writer of English that has ever lived. He died in 1616.

1588 The Spanish Armada was defeated, which prevented Spain from invading England.

1603 Scotland and England were united under King James I.

1605 The Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes and other Catholic conspirators tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament when the king was there.

1642-49 The English Civil War took place, in which the king was defeated and later executed by the Parliamentarians. This was followed by ten years when England did not have a monarch, but was ruled by Parliament under Oliver Cromwell.

1750 The start of the Industrial Revolution.

1800 Ireland was joined with Great Britain.

1815 England under Wellington defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.

1912 The south of Ireland became independent when the Republic of Ireland (or Eire) was established.

1914-18 The First World War

1939-45 The Second World War

1973 Great Britain joined the European Economic Community (EEC) which became the European Union (EU).

AD = after the birth of Christ (после рождества Христова:
сокращение от латинского Anno Domini, что
буквально переводится как "века господня" и означает
"нашей эры")

ВС = before Christ (до нашей эры)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. Wales is famous for its high mountains and pretty valleys, factories and coal mines, music and myths. Northern Ireland, with farming land, is beautiful too.
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