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  Рабочая тетрадь для экономических и управленческих специальностей. Выполненные задания за III семестр.

Основы деловой лексики на примере грамматических конструкций английского языка


MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY (ИЗМЕРЕНИЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ)

There are a large number of statistics produced regularly on the operation of the world's major economies. The UK's economy is no exception in this respect. You will probably have noticed that often the headlines in newspapers or important items on television news programmes relate to economic data and the implications for individuals and businesses. A prime example of this occurs when interest rates are increased: the media responds by highlighting the adverse effects on businesses with debts and householders with mortgages.

Data is provided on a wide range of aspects of the economy's operation. Statistics are available to show.

  • the level of unemployment
  • the level of inflation
  • a country's trade balance with the rest of the world
  • production volumes in key industries and the economy as a whole
  • the level of wages
  • raw material prices, and so forth.
The main statistics illustrating the economy's behaviour relate to the level of activity in the economy. That is, they tell us whether the economy is working at fall capacity using all or nearly all, available resources of labour, machinery and other factors of production or whether these resources are being under-utilized.
  • The unemployment figures for the economy give an indicator of the level of activity. As the economy moves towards a recession and a lower level of prosperity it is likely that unemployment figures will rise. An alternative measure of the level of activity is national income statistics, which show the value of a nation's output during a year. Economists use the term Gross National Product to describe this data. Changes in the level or trends of such key data have great significance for businesses, as we shall see later.
  • There are numerous sources of data on the economy of which we can make use. The government publishes much through the Treasury, Department of Trade and Industry, the Bank of England and the Department of Employment. The Central Statistical Office, which was established during the Second World War, publishes about half of the government's economic data.
  • Much of this is contained in its annual publication, "The Annual Abstract of Statistics". It also publishes the equally valuable "Social Trends" annually. Additionally, private organizations, such as the banks, building societies and universities, publish figures on various aspects of the economy's performance.
  • Economic statistics are presented in many forms, the most common being graphs and tables. Although these statistics can be valuable in assisting managers, they should be treated with some caution when predicting the future trend of the economy and thus helping the business to take effective decisions.

    VOCABULARY NOTES

    to measure – измерять, рассчитывать, оценивать

    economic activity – экономическая деятельность

    is no exception in this respect – в этом отношении не является исключением

    important items – важные вопросы, проблемы

    to relate to – относиться к чему-либо, иметь отношение; рассказывать

    by highlighting the adverse effects on... - в первую очередь освещая неблагоприятное влияние на...

    householder – домовладелец, домохозяин

    household – домашнее хозяйство

    mortgage – закладная

    data – данные

    on a wide range of aspects – по самым разнообразным аспектам

    statistics are available to show – статистика показывает

    trade balance – торговый баланс

    key industries – основные отрасли промышленности

    wages – заработная плата (рабочих)

    salary – оклад, жалованье (служащих)

    raw material prices – цены на сырье

    at full capacity – на полную мощность

    available resources – доступные, имеющиеся в наличии ресурсы

    labour – труд

    machinery – оборудование

    factors of production – производственные факторы, факторы производства (труд, земля, природные ресурсы, капитал)

    to be under-utilized – не использоваться полностью

    unemployment figures – количество безработных

    indicator — показатель

    national income – национальный доход

    the value of a nation's output – оценка объема производства страны

    Gross National Product (GNP) – валовой национальный продукт (ВНП)

    trend – направление, тенденция, тренд

    the Tresuary – Государственное казначейство. Министерство финансов (в Великобритании)

    the Department of Employment – Министерство по вопросам занятости (в Великобритании)

    the Central Statistical Office – Центральное статистическое управление

    to contain – содержать

    equally valuable – такой же важный

    building societies – англ. строительные общества (специализированные сберегательные учреждения)

    graphs and tables – графики и таблицы

    to assist – помогать, оказывать помощь

    they should be treated with some caution – к этим данным следует относиться с некоторой осторожностью

    Assignments

    I. Suggest the Russian equivalents

    important items on TV programmes relate to economic data and the implications for individuals and businesses; a prime example; the adverse effects; householders; statistics are available to show; available resources of labour; at full capacity; key industries; key data; the value of a nation's output; the Treasury; building societies; they should be treated with some caution; trend (find it in 3 sentences)

    II. Replace the parts in italics by synonyms

    a large number of, the operation of the world's major economies; headlines relate to; the implications for individuals and businesses; by highlighting the adverse effects on businesses; these resources are being under-utilized; figures give an indicator of, changes have great significance for; numerous; additionally; economic statistics are presented in many forms

    III. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text

    1. The headlines in newspapers often _______________ economic data and _______________ for individuals and businesses. 2. The statistics tell us whether the economy is working ________________ using all or nearly all, ________________ resources of labour, machinery and other factors of production or whether these resources are being _________________. 3. Economists use the term __________________ to describe the value of a nation's output during a year. 4. Although these statistics can be _______________ in assisting managers, they should _______________ with _______________ when ______________ the future trend of the economy.

    IV. Find in the text English equivalents for the following

    много (многочисленные); в этом отношении; средства массовой информации; подчеркивать, выделять; закладные; объем производства; сырье; не полностью используется; уровень занятости; валовой национальный продукт; опубликовать в каких-либо источниках

    V. Increase your vocabulary

    it is likely (unlikely) that...

    smb is likely (unlikely) to be (to do smth)

    1. Эта статистика, возможно, будет опубликована в ежегоднике Центрального статистического бюро.

    2. Вряд ли эти цифры говорят о низком уровне занятости.

    3. Похоже, что эти производственные мощности используются не полностью.

    4. Может быть, экономика будет работать на полную мощность, если будут использованы все факторы производства.

    VI. Give explanations in English

    media; householders; mortgages; trade balance; wages; building societies

    VII. Answer the questions

    1. Why does the media relate to economic data and the implications for individuals and businesses?

    2. What aspects of the economy's operation are statistics available to show?

    3. What do statistics show?

    4. What are the sources of data on the economy in the UK? In Russia?

    5. What is the GNP?

    6. Why should statistics be treated with some caution?

    VIII. Translate using all the active vocabulary possible

    1. К официальным статистическим данным по уровню инфляции в стране следует относиться с осторожностью.

    2. Валовой национальный продукт – это совокупность товаров и услуг, произведенных национальной экономикой за год.

    3. Объем производства продукции в ключевых отраслях промышленности в значительной степени показывает уровень активности населения.

    4. Если в экономике отмечается падение производства, то следствием этого становится рост безработицы и понижение уровня зарплаты.

    5. Средства массовой информации сообщили об отрицательном влиянии на производство увеличившейся процентной ставки.