1. Вы должны упорно работать над вашим английским. 2. Вы должны выучить эти слова. 3. Мы должны выучить это стихотворение сегодня? 4. Должно быть, очень трудно учить китайский язык. 5. Вы не должны разговаривать на уроках. 6. Все должны приходить в школу вовремя. 7. Не звоните ему: он, должно быть, очень занят. 8. Вы не должны делать заметки в книгах. 9. Сегодня я должна помогать маме. 10. Не беспокойся (Не волнуйся)! Это неважно. — Неважно? Ты, должно быть, шутишь! 11. Он никогда не опаздывает на работу. Он, должно быть, проспал сегодня. 12. Вы не должны (Вам нельзя) спорить с боссом. 13. Она должна прекратить столько есть, и ей надо похудеть. 14. Вы должны прекратить курить! Если вы этого не сделаете, то когда-нибудь у вас будут серьезные проблемы с легкими.
1. I must work hard at my English. 2. You must listen to the teacher attentively at the lesson. 3. You must do your homework every day. 4. You must not forget about your duties. 5. You must be careful in the street. 6. She must be at home now. 7. My friends must be in the park. 8. You must be very hungry. 9. It must be very difficult to solve such problems. 10. I must see my friend today. 11. He must be very tired. 12. They even have a yacht. They must be very rich. 13. Must
you leave tomorrow morning? 14. You mustn't be late.
15. I mustn't forget about my mother. I haven't writ ten to her for ages. I must write her a letter tonight.
16. This book is very valuable. You mustn't lose it.
17. Must you go so soon? 18. I must admit (that) I am wrong.
1. Вчера мне пришлось сделать очень много домашних заданий. 2. Ей пришлось остаться дома, потому что она себя неважно чувствовала. 3. Пете пришлось остаться дома, потому что было очень холодно. 4. Майку пришлось писать это упражнение в школе, потому что он не сделал этого дома. 5. Им пришлось вызвать врача, потому что бабушка была больна. 6. Почему тебе пришлось остаться дома вчера? — Потому что родителей не было дома, и мне пришлось присматривать за маленькой сестрой. 7. Вчера было воскресенье, поэтому ему незачем было быть на работе, но по дому ему пришлось много потрудиться. 8. Извините, я не смог прийти вчера. Мне пришлось работать допоздна. 9. Я не написал сочинение. Мне придется писать его в воскресенье. 10. Нам не пришлось покупать печенье, потому что наша бабушка испекла прекрасный пирог. 11. Тебе придется завтра рано вставать? 12. Почему тебе завтра надо рано вставать? 13. Мне надо было идти в больницу навестить тетю. 14. Что тебе приходилось учить наизусть? — В школе я должен был выучить прекрасное стихотворение «Досуг» Вильяма Генри Дейвиса. 15. Мне надо повидать его.
1. It was quite clear to everybody in the family that he had to start getting ready for his exam instead of wasting time. 2. It was impossible to do anything in
such a short time. I had to ask the chief to put off my report. 3. I did not mean that you had to do everything they told you. 4. It was already twenty minutes past eight. You had to go or you would have been late for the first lesson. 5. I was very tired. I felt I had to go to bed at once, or I should have fallen asleep where I was sitting. 6. We could not wait for them any longer, we had to ring them up and find out what had happened. 7. I was thinking hard, trying to find a solution of the problem. There had to be a way out. 8. I doubted if I could finish the work in time, but I had to do it.
1. a) You had to listen to the tape recording of this
text several times.
b) You will have to listen to the tape recording of this text several times.
2. a) You had to take your exam in English.
b) You will have to take your exam in English.
3. a) She could translate this article without a dictionary.
b) She will be able to translate this article without a dictionary.
4. a) We could not meet them at the station.
b) We won't be able to meet them at the station.
5. a) The doctor had to examine the child.
b) The doctor will have to examine the child.
6. a) He had to work systematically if he wanted to know French well.
b) He will have to work systematically if he wants to know French well.
7. a) This child had to spend more time in the
b) This child will have to spend more time in the open air.
8. a) I could not recite this poem.
b) I shan't be able to recite this poem.
9. a) You had to take part in this work.
b) You will have to take part in this work.
10. a) He could not join the party because he was
b) He won't be able to join the party because will be busy.
11. a) I could settle my own problems.
b) I shall be able to settle my own problems.
1. I must
go to the shop today.
do my homework.
go to school.
write a letter to my brother.
2. I shall have to
do my homework.
go to school.
write a letter to my brother.
3. I had to
do my homework.
go to school.
write a letter to my brother.
1. What must you do today?
2. What will you have to do tomorrow?
3. What did you have to do yesterday?
1. can. 2. can, can't. 3. must. 4. may. 5. must (may, can). 6. may. 7. can. 8. must. 9. can. 10. can. 11. may. 12. must. 13. must. 14. My friend Danielle isn't a famous artist. But she can even paint Russian icons. I can only admire her beautiful pictures. She must be it woman of great talents. She can speak German, Prench and English. She can translate a lot of articles for the Museum of her native town in Switzerland. She can also teach these languages at school. She is fantastic. I am fascinated by everything that she does.
1. May I take your dictionary? 2. At the English lesson you must speak only English. 3. Must we hand in our exercise books today? 4. May I ask you a question? — Yes, you are welcome (Yes, you may). 5. I cannot go to the cinema with you because I am very busy. 6. May I stay here? — Yes, you are welcome (Yes, you may). 7. He must be in his office now. You can speak to him. 8. May I come in? — You are welcome. (Yes, you may). 9. You must read this text. 10. Can he do this task? 11. I must speak to my friend today. 12. We must pay this electricity bill by the end of the month. 13. This woman is an excellent driver. She can even drive a bus. 14. May I have a tuna sandwich and a cup of coffee?
1. Мне предстояло ждать ее на вокзале. 2. Мы собирались пойти в кино в тот день. 3. Нам надо было добраться туда раньше остальных. 4. Он должен был сказать ей, где нас найти. 5. В том году она должна была (ей предстояло) закончить Оксфордский университет. 6. Она должна была быть в этом платье на выпускном вечере. 7. Он должен прийти сюда в пять часов. 8. Поезд отправлялся в пять утра. 9. Они должны были отправиться в путь в понедельник. 10. Они договорились, что он будет звонить, как только она
будет вне опасности. 11. Вокруг пруда надо было посадить розы. 12. Позже должно было состояться обсуждение.
I. What am I to do if they come too early? 2. The youngest children were to play on the beach. 3. You are to show the place to her. 4. I am to leave tomorrow at the latest. 5. Where am I to be taken? 6. This is Dora. She is to share the room with you. 7. And who is to do the cooking? 8. Two more apartment houses are to be built here. 9. The cup final was to be played that afternoon. 10. Who is to meet you at the station?
1. is. 2. am, are, are. 3. are. 4. have. 5. had. 6. shall have. 7. was. 8. are. 9. were, had. 10. is. 11. is. 12. do I have.
1. had. 2. was. 3. are. 4. is. 5. was, had. 6. will have. 7. is. 8. had. 9. was. 10. was. 11. are. 12. had. 13. have. 14. had. 15. have.
1. You are to learn this poem by Wednesday. 2. I was to learn this poem by Wednesday. 3. I had to learn thin poem by Wednesday. 4, I shall have to learn this poem by Wednesday. 5. He has to learn this poem today as h*» did not learn it yesterday. 6. You won't have to learn this poem. 7. I did not have to learn this poem. 8. An he learnt this poem yesterday, he does not have to leum it now. 9. This week we are to meet with an outstanding scientist. 10. There was no way out, and he had to pay a fine. 11. I was to write a composition on Pushkin's creative activity, and for this I had to reread some of his works which I remembered badly. 12. I shall have to stay at home these days. The doctor says I am not to go out till my temperature is normal. 13. Stay here while he is busy. I don't think you will have to wait long. 14. The performance was to begin at seven o'clock. 15. We had to put off the trip as the weather had got worse. 16. If you want to master a language, you have to read a lot. 17. According to the new timetable we are to have five English lessons a week. 18. We decided that the school orchestra was to play in the concert. 19. Sooner or later you will have to see the doctor. 20. Next year we are to begin studying astronomy. 21. To work out a new theory the scientists had to do numerous experiments.
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
1. Вы не можете прочесть так много книг. 2. Вы можете не читать так много книг. 3. Коля не может пойти в школу сегодня. 4. Коля может не ходить в школу сегодня. 5. Они не могут перевести эту трудную статью. 6. Они могут не переводить эту трудную статью. 7. Моя сестра не может написать это письмо; она очень занята. 8. Моя сестра может не писать это письмо: я позвоню им. 9. Она не может купить хлеб. 10. Она может не покупать хлеб. 11. Он не мог остаться там на ночь. 12. Он мог и не оставаться там на ночь. 13. Мы не могли сделать всю эту работу. 14. Мы могли и не делать всю эту работу. 15. Она не могла приготовить такой большой обед. 16. Она могла и не готовить такой большой обед. 17. Они не могли написать сочинение. 18. Они могли и не писать сочинение. (Им не нужно было писать сочинение.) 19. Я не
мог пойти в библиотеку. 20. Я мог и не ходить в библиотеку.
1. We need not take the 8 pm (train) to London. 2. She need not have done it herself. 3. You need not worry. 4. You need not be present. 5. Need we go into all that now? 6. Need you have mentioned all these figures? 7. Need you press the skirt? (You need not press the skirt.) 8. You need not have reminded me about her birthday. 9. Need you do it all today? 10. Mother need not have cooked this enormous dinner.
1. Need I help you? — No, thank you, I shall do everything myself. 2. You need not go there. 3. He need not worry about her. 4. I need not ask him: he will tell me everything himself. 5. You need not ring me up: I won't forget about my promise. 6. Need she buy such a lot of foodstuffs? 7. She need not go to the library: I shall give her the book. 8. You need not have taken the umbrella: I am sure it won't rain. 9. We have got plenty of time to spare, and we needn't hurry. 10. You needn't do it now. You can do it tomorrow. 11. She needn't help. Everything linn been already done. 12. He needn't have sold his piano. 13. You needn't have shouted at the child like that. 14. Now they can't sleep. — They needn't have watched this horror film.
1. may, must. 2. must, need. 3. may, need. 4. may (must), may (must). 5. must, need, may. 6. must, need, may. 7. must, may. 8. may. 9. must. 10. must.
He must know your sister.
Он, должно быть, знает вашу сестру.
Не must be busy.
Он, должно быть, занят.
Не must be ill.
Он, должно быть, болен.
Не must be tired.
Он, должно быть, устал.
Не must be hungry.
Он, должно быть, голоден.
Не may know your sister.
Он, может быть, знает вашу сестру.
Не may be busy.
Он, может быть, занят.
Не may be ill.
Он, может быть, болен.
Не may be tired.
Он, может быть, устал.
Не may be hungry.
Он, может быть, голоден.
He might know your sister.
Он, может быть, и знает вашу сестру (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be busy.
Он, может быть, и занят (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be ill.
Он, может быть, и болен (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be tired.
Он, может быть, и устал (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be hungry.
Он, может быть, и голоден (хотя вряд ли).
Не can't know your sister.
He может быть, что он знает вашу сестру.
Не can't be busy.
Не может быть, что он занят.
Не can't be ill.
Не может быть, что он болен.
Не can't be tired.
Не может быть, что он устал.
Не can't be hungry.
Не может быть, что он голоден.
Не must be sleeping.
Он, должно быть, сейчас спит.
Не must be working hard.
Он, должно быть, сейчас упорно работает.
Не must be watching TV.
Он, должно быть, сейчас смотрит телевизор.
Не must be having dinner.
Он, должно быть, сейчас обедает.
Не must be playing football.
Он, должно быть, сейчас играет в футбол.
Не may be sleeping.
Он, может быть, сейчас спит.
Не may be working hard.
Он, может быть, сейчас упорно работает.
Не may be watching TV.
Он, может быть, сейчас смотрит телевизор.
Не may be having dinner.
Он, может быть, сейчас обедает.
Не may be playing football.
Он, может быть, сейчас играет в футбол.
Не might be sleeping.
Он, может быть, и спит (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be working hard.
Он, может быть, и работает упорно (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be watching TV.
Он, может быть, и смотрит телевизор (хотя едва ли).
Не might be having dinner.
Он, может быть, и обедает (хотя вряд ли).
Не might be playing football.
Он, может быть, и играет в футбол (хотя вряд ли).
Не can't be sleeping.
Не может быть, что он спит.
Не can't be working hard.
He может быть, что он работает упорно.
Не can't be watching TV.
He может быть, что он смотрит телевизор.
Не can't be having dinner.
He может быть, что он обедает.
Не can't be playing football.
He может быть, что он играет в футбол.
Не must have forgotten your address.
Он, должно быть, забыл ваш адрес.
Не must have lost your book.
Он, должно быть, потерял вашу книгу.
Не must have missed the train.
Он, должно быть, опоздал на поезд.
Не must have caught a cold.
Он, должно быть, простудился.
Не must have fallen ill.
Он» должно быть, заболел.
Не must have left the country.
Он, должно быть, уехал из страны.
Не must have sold his piano.
Он, должно быть, продал свое пианино.
Не must have bought а саг.
Он, должно быть, купил машину.
Не may have forgotten your address.
Он, может быть, забыл ваш адрес.
Не may have lost your book.
Он, может быть, потерял вашу книгу.
Не may have missed the train.
Он, может быть, опоздал на поезд.
Не may have caught a cold.
Он, может быть, простудился.
Не may have fallen ill.
Он, может быть, заболел.
Не may have left the country.
Он, может быть, уехал из страны.
Не may have sold his piano.
Он, может быть, продал свое пианино.
Не may have bought a car.
Он, может быть, купил машину.
Не might have forgotten your address.
Может быть, он и забыл ваш адрес (хотя вряд ли).
Не might have lost your book.
Может быть, он и потерял вашу книгу
(хотя вряд ли).
Не might have missed the train.
Может быть, он и опоздал на поезд (хотя вряд ли).
Не might have caught a cold.
Может быть, он и простудился (хотя вряд ли).
Не might have fallen ill.
Может быть, он и заболел (хотя вряд ли).
Не might have left the country.
Может быть, он и уехал из страны (хотя вряд ли)
Не might have sold his piano.
Может быть, он и продал свое пианино
(хотя вряд ли).
Не might have bought a car.
Может быть, он и купил машину (хотя вряд ли).
Не can't have forgotten your address.
He может быть, что он забыл ваш адрес.
Не can't have lost your book.
He может быть, что он потерял вашу книгу.
Не can't have missed the train.
He может быть, что он опоздал на поезд.
Не can't have caught a cold.
Не может быть, что он простудился.
Не can't have fallen ill.
He может быть, что он заболел.
Не can't have left the country.
He может быть, что он уехал из страны.
Не can't have sold his piano.
He может быть, что он продал свое пианино.
Не can't have bought a car.
Не может быть, что он купил машину.
1. They must be working abroad.
2. They may be working abroad.
3. They might be working abroad.
4. They can't be working abroad.
5. They must have worked abroad.
6. They may have worked abroad.
7. They might have worked abroad.
8. They can't have worked abroad.
9. He must be at work.
10. He must have been at work.
11. He may be at work.
12. He may have been at work.
13. He might be at work.
14. Не might have been at work.
15. He can't be at work.
16. He can't have been at work.
1. May I come and see you some day? 2. We asked the teacher if we might use dictionaries. 3. Children may borrow books from the school library. 4. Your hair is getting rather thin, sir, may I advise to change your parting? 5. Mother, may I have a glass of light beer?
1. He may have written the letter, but the signature is certainly not his. 2. It might have been worse. 3. I may show him your reports later. I don't know. 4. I may have wrecked my own life, but I will not let you wreck yours. 5. Justice may be slow, mother, but it comes in the end.
1. Можно к вам как-нибудь зайти? 2. Мы спросили у учителя, можно ли пользоваться словарями.
3. Дети могут брать книги в школьной библиотеке,
4. Ваши волосы становятся довольно редкими, сэр, разрешите посоветовать вам делать пробор в другом месте. 5. Мама, можно мне выпить стакан легкого пива?
1. Он, возможно, написал письмо, но подпись, конечно, не его. 2. Могло быть и хуже. 3. Может быть, я покажу ему ваши доклады (отчеты) позже. Я не знаю. 4. Может быть, я исковеркал собственную жизнь, однако, я не позволю вам исковеркать вашу.
5. Справедливость может быть не скорой, мама, но она приходит (наступает) в конце концов.
1. You may have left your umbrella in the bus. 2. He may have gone to the cafe to wait for us. 3. It may have been Helen who rang you up. 4. They may have come by plane. 5. She may have had a very good English teacher. 6. It may have been too cold for the children to go out. 7. He may have taken his children to the zoo. 8. They may not have seen us in the crowd. 9. Robert may have used a dictionary. 10. Mary may have misunderstood you. 11. Henry may have waited for us there.
12. Ann may have returned very late last night.
13. They may have seen the new play. 14. Nick may have left his exercise book at home.
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
1. He may be at home, but I am not sure he is. 2. We may have studied at the same school, but I don't remember her. 3. She may have been proud of her knowledge, but she never showed it to her classmates. 4. There may have been a chance for him to win the match. 5. Peter may have been as capable as the old workers, but he was given no chance to show his skill. 6. They may come home very soon: be ready. 7. The question may have been too difficult for her. 8. Try this delicious drink: you may like it. 9. Why didn't Nick ring us up? — He may have forgotten about it. 10. Your brother mny never have heard about this singer. 11. She may have tried to enter the university, but she failed. 12. You may have asked the wrong people. 13. Our friends may arrive here tomorrow.
1. may I ask. 2. might turn. 3. may not stop. 4. may have been. 5. may arrive. 6. may have missed. 7. may have done. 8. might want. 9. may I borrow. 10. might have left. 11. might have been stolen.
1. It may (might) not be true. 2. He may (might) be busy. 3. They may (might) know. 4. He may (might) still be abroad. 5. She may be late. 6. He may pass the exam. 7. We may go to the Volga. 8. She may come tomorrow. 9. I may buy this book in Moscow. 10. She may send us a telegram. 11. They may forget to bring the newspaper. 12. He may have already done his homework. 13. My sister may have already spoken to them. 14. They may have gone abroad. 15. My brother may have forgotten to ring you up. 16. She may have bought the tickets. 17. Grandmother may be sleeping. 18. The children may be playing at the river. 19. They may be discussing the question at the moment. 20, They may be having dinner at the moment. 21. He may be lying on the grass and looking at the clouds now.
1. You must take a taxi if you want to catch that train. 2. You must tell your mother about it. 3. "Oh. Auntie," he answered, "you mustn't talk like that." 4. And remember, you must come and see the baby as soon as you can. 5. You must go home now, Georgia. 6. The question must be solved before we begin doing anything. 7. Mind, you mustn't spend all the money.
1. But she must have seen him! 2. Oh, John, think how she must be suffering! 3. Is she waiting? She must have been waiting for an hour. 4. You must be a fool to think so. 5. The work must have been carried out in secret for quite a long time.
1. Вы должны взять такси, если хотите успеть на этот поезд. 2. Вы должны сказать вашей маме об этом. 3. "О, тетушка, — ответил он, — вы не должны так говорить." 4. И помни: ты должна прийти и повидать ребенка, как только сможешь. 5. Теперь ты должен идти домой, Джордж. 6. Вопрос должен быть решен прежде, чем мы начнем что-нибудь делать. 7. Имей в виду, ты не должна тратить все деньги.
1. Но она, наверняка (несомненно), видела его! 2. О, Джон, как она, должно быть, страдает! 3. Она ждет? Она, должно быть, ждет уже целый час. 4. Ты, должно быть, дурак, если думаешь так. 5. Эта работа, очевидно, долгое время проводилась в тайне.
1. You must have left your exercise book at school. 2. She must have left the town. 3. Mike must have cone to the teachers' room. 4. Tom and Nick must be playing football. 5. Helen must have got a bad mark. 6. They must have solved the problem. 7. The pupils must have finished writing their composition. 8. He must have forgotten to warn them. 9. The meeting must have been cancelled. 10. He must have forgotten to send her a birthday card. 11. There must have been something wrong with the tape recorder. 12. I must have
left my bag in the canteen, 13. You must have left your umbrella in the bus. 14. Mary must have forgotten to call me. 15. Mother must have taken my umbrella. 16. I must have seen you before: your face is familiar to me.
1. It must be time for the bell to ring. 2. They must have this book in the library. 3. He must have recognized you by your photo in the papers. 4. He must be in at this time. 5. She must be trying to help you. 6. She must be waiting for you at home. 7. He must have already been ill. 8. The first experiment must have failed.
9. She must have known what she was going to do.
10. She must be fond of the child. 11. They must have taken the wrong turning. 12, He must have been taken there by car.
1. He is very old. He must be nearly eighty. 2. It must be time to go now. 3. They must have changed the school curriculum. My granddaughter knows a great deal more than I did when I was her age. 4. It must bv a very difficult rule. 5. It must be pleasant to spend summer in such a picturesque place. 6. You must have read books by this author before. 7. They must be preparing a surprise for us. 8. These old legends must have been composed about a thousand years ago. 9. It must be nine o'clock now. 10. You have been absent very long. You must feel hungry. 11. Where are the children? — They are at the river with Nick. They must be having a very good time. 12. He must have worked very hard to finish his book. 13. She is a very experienced doctor. She must have been working at this hospital for at least fifteen years. 14. Look! Helen's windows are open. She must be at home. 15. The Smiths
have always been great football fans. They must be at the stadium watching the football match.
1. must be. 2. must have been. 3. must come and visit. 4. must really enjoy. 5. must have snowed. 6. must be snowing. 7. must have been snowing. 8. must have had. 9. must have. 10. must have worked.
11. must work. 12. must be reading. 13. must have been studying.
1. He must know several foreign languages. 2. He must be working on his new novel now. 3. They must be enjoying fine weather now. 4. She must be trying to find the old letters. 5. They must be admiring the beauty of the southern nature. 6. He must have returned from the south. 7. She must have lost my address. 8. They must have finished their work. 9. He must have told everything at the trial. 10. She must have prepared everything beforehand. 11. He must be still here.
12. They must have just come. 13. He must have carried the papers away. 14. Somebody must have already bnen here. 15. They must be laughing at him. 16. They must have lived here then. 17. It must be raining. 18. It must be here.
I. Он, должно быть, пытается найти потерянную марку. 2. Вы должны попытаться найти потерянную марку. 3. Он, должно быть, взял ее. 4. Ему пришлось взять ее. 5. Она, должно быть, самая младшая в группе. 6. Если хотите стать хорошим футболистом, вы
должны быть спортсменом широкого профиля. 7. Мне пришлось прочитать письмо дважды, прежде чем я его понял. 8. Он, должно быть, перечитал письмо много раз. 9. Что вы только должны обо мне думать! 10. Они, должно быть, говорят о нас.
1. I must read this book. 2. She must be reading this book. 3. Mother was ill, and I had to take my sister to school. 4. They must be playing in the yard. 5. I had to go to the chemist's to buy medicines. 6. She must have gone to the chemist's. 7. You must speak to her. 8. They must be speaking about it now. 9. I had to write to my sister about it. 10. She must have written to her sister. 11. He's feeling really unfit. He must take more exercise. 12. You must be Ann's friend. 13. The children aren't home yet. — They must have been held up at school. 14. I had to solve my problems by myself. 15. We had to leave our home. 16. He must be joking!
1. He must be very clever. 2. He must have recognized you. 3. He was to go to the headmaster and explain his behaviour. 4. You will have to speak to her. 5. They had to walk for a long time. 6. He won't have to rewrite the composition. 7. He must be painting her portrait. 8. They must have already gone. 9. He was to make a wonderful discovery. 10. I am to do a lot of work today. 11. I had to go there myself. 12. You will have to wait a little. 13. When is he to come? 14. The train was to arrive in a few minutes. 15. Unfortunately, they weren't able to go to the party. Their mother had to wait for the plumber. Their father had to work
late at his office. Their aunt had to take care of the little ones (the small children). Their uncle had to fix his car. Bad luck!
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
Can he know your sister?
Неужели он знает вашу сестру?
Can he be busy?
Неужели он занят?
Can he be ill?
Неужели он болен?
Can he be tired?
Неужели он устал?
Can he be hungry?
Неужели он голоден?
Can he be sleeping?
Неужели он сейчас спит?
Can he be working hard?
Неужели он сейчас упорно работает?
Can he be watching TV?
Неужели он сейчас смотрит телевизор?
Can he be having dinner?
Неужели он сейчас обедает?
Can he be playing football?
Неужели он сейчас играет в футбол?
Can he have forgotten your address?
Неужели он забыл ваш адрес?
Can he have lost your book?
Неужели он потерял вашу книгу?
Can he have missed the train?
Неужели он опоздал на поезд?
Can he have caught a cold?
Неужели он простудился?
Can he have fallen ill?
Неужели он заболел?
Can he have left the country?
Неужели он уехал из страны?
Can he have sold his piano?
Неужели он продал свое пианино?
Can he have bought a car?
Неужели он купил машину?
1. Could you help me with the translation of this article? I am afraid I cannot do it alone. 2. He shut himself up in the study for the whole day, and I could see through the window that he was writing busily. 3. She can't come tomorrow because they will be working the whole day. 4. I simply could not refuse: they would have been hurt. 5. The island can be reached by boat or even on foot when the tide is low.
1. Can you tell me the way to the nearest post office? 2. Could you help me with the translation of this article? 3. Could you leave the boy here for half an hour? I want him to help me.
1. "But they can't be as bad as he!" 2. A little bit of boiled fish can't hurt you, you know. 3. Can she have been waiting for us all this time? 4. He was not old. He couldn't have been more than forty. 5. "Oh!" she cried in surprise, "it's impossible! You can't have done it!"
1. Вы не могли бы помочь мне с переводом этой статьи? Боюсь, что я не смогу сделать его один. 2. Он заперся в кабинете на целый день, и я видел и окно, что он пишет, не отрываясь. 3. Она не может прийти завтра, потому что они будут работать весь день. 4. Я просто не мог отказать: они бы очень обиделись. 5. До острова можно добраться на лодке или даже пешком во время отлива.
1. Вы не могли бы сказать, как пройти к ближайшей почте? 2. Вы не могли бы помочь мне с переводом этой статьи? 3. Вы не могли бы оставить здесь мальчика на полчаса? Я хочу, чтобы он мне помог.
1. «Но, не может быть, чтобы они были такими же плохими, как он!» 2. Кусочек вареной рыбы, знаете ли, не может вам повредить. 3. Неужели она ждет нас все это время? 4. Он был не стар. Ему не могло быть больше сорока лет. 5. «О! — вскричала она удивленно, — это невозможно! Не может быть, что вы это сделали!»
1. The teacher can't have permitted you to use the dictionary. 2. Nick can't have got up at seven and done his morning exercises. 3. It can't have been Kate who aired the room. 4. There can't have been a lot of pupils in the library yesterday. 5. It can't have been John who broke the CD player. 6. You can't have seen Ann in the library yesterday. 7. Boris can't have been in the canteen five minutes ago. 8. Robert can't have taken
two bags with him. 9. That can't have been Ann who plugged in the tape recorder. 10. Nick can't have been doing the recording for two hours. 11. It can't have been Mary who rewound the tape. 12. The teacher can't have let you take the tape home.
1. This car can't have been produced twenty years ago. 2. These photographs can't have been taken in the north. 3. This tape recording can't have been done last week. 4. James can't have been given an excellent mark in history. 5. Ann can't have been given an excellent mark for her geometry test. 6. This house can't have been built at the beginning of this century. 7. This tower can't have been built in the 9th century. 8. This book can't have been written by a good writer. 9. This film can't have been made by a good director. 10. This play can't have been written by a clever playwright.
11. This film can't have been shot in a fortnight.
12. This book can't have been translated into Russian in the 19th century. 13. This castle can't have been built in the 15th century. 14. This picture can't have been painted by an Italian artist. 15. This computer can't have been built ten years ago.
1. You can't be serious. 2. She can't be a traitor.
3. He can't have made such an important discovery.
4. The teacher can't have forgotten to correct our homework. 5. The work can't be too difficult for my friend. 6. Jane can't have made such a mistake. 7. The cat can't have eaten all the fish. 8. Our papers can't have been so poor. 9. You can't have believed such a silly lie. 10. He can't have stolen the money. 11. They can't have heard the story before. 12. She can't be good at physics.
1. They can't be at home now. 2. He can't know so much. 3. They can't be playing in the yard now. It is late. 4. She can't be still sleeping. It is already ten o'clock. 5. He can't have missed the train. 6. She can't have deceived me. 7. You can't have made such a mistake. 8. She can't have failed the exam. 9. She can't have betrayed me. 10. He can't have given up smoking (have stopped smoking). 11. He can't have done it. 12. He can't have become a doctor. 13. He can't have translated this book.
1. Can he be a good runner? He is so small. 2. She can't have finished school. 3. He can't be a scientist. 4. He can't have been a scientist, 5. Can she be still sleeping? 6. Can they have lost the game? 7. He can't have said it! 8. A grown-up man can't like such books. 9. She can't have told you this. 10. Can it have been so cold? 11. She can't have been late for the lesson: she has never been late before. 12. She can't have mixed up the streets. 13. It can't be true. 14. Can you have torn my note? 15. He can't be in the park now: it is late. 16. She can't have written it. I am sure that somebody else has written it.
1. can you ask. 2. can it be. 3. can (could) not have seen. 4. cannot forget. 5. could visit. 6. cannot (could not) have forgotten. 7. could finish. 8. can't be (cannot be). 9. could use. 10. could have slept. 11. cannot have (can't have). 12. could speak. 13. can I call. 14. could I have. 15. cannot really decide, could see.
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
1. Не can't have left. 2. Can (Could) he have translated the whole book? 3. It can't be cold outside: the thermometer says (reads) fifteen degrees. 4. He could not get the book because the library was closed. 5. He can't (could not) have got the book: the library was closed.6. Could you show us the way to the stadium? 7. She can't have broken her leg. 8. I won't go for a walk: she may ring me up. 9. Where are my books? — I don't know. Mother may have put them into the bookcase. 10. She can't (could not) have broken the glass: she is so careful. 11. It is very cold today: it may snow. 12. Mike may come later. 13. I have been looking for my literature exercise book for an hour. I can't (could not) have left it at school. — You may have given it to Kate. 14. They may have been studying French for a long time. 15. My brother may come today. 16. She may have gone to the country. 17. We might have met with him in Novgorod, but I don't remember it. 18. She may be trying to call us now but she can't get through to us: our telephone is broken (out of order). 19. She can't (could not) have finished this work so soon. She may have done only half of it. 20. You can't (could not) have lost the money. You may have put it into your bag. — No, it is not in the bag. I may have dropped it in the shop.
1. You must be tired: you have been working for hours. 2. He may have visited the Hermitage when he was in St Petersburg last year. 3. It must be a very deep lake. 4. That building in the distance must be the station. 5. You can't have lost your passport: you must have put it into another bag. 6. The girl may have been frightened. 7. You must have left your textbook in the canteen. 8. They can't give up such a brilliant idea.
9. You look pale: you must be tired. 10. This boy can't be a good friend.
1. Hurry up: you may miss the train. 2. He may have fallen ill. 3. He may be ill. 4. He can't have forgotten to buy flowers. 5. He can't have quarrelled with her. 6. She must have learnt about it from Masha. 7. It must have been a very difficult problem. 8. It must be very cold outside. 9. He must have met them on the way home. 10. They can't have sold their house. 11. They may come tomorrow. 12. My sister must be in the library now. 13. He can't have taken the first place. 14. He might have heard about it. 15. Mother must have bought sweets. 16. She may have rung me up yesterday, but I was out. 17. He might be at school now. 18. She can't be so young. She must be at least forty. 19. There must be thick woods growing around your village. 20. He can't have written the letter so soon. 21. We may go to the beach: the weather is wonderful. 22. It must be a very ancient manuscript. 23. Let's ring up Robert: we may need his advice.
1. You should smoke less. 2. You should not give her sweets before dinner. 3. She should copy passages out of a book. 4. He should not shout at the dog. 5. You should not speak so fast. 6. The boy should play out of doors. 7. You should take a taxi. 8. You should try the room next door.
1. You should not have taken the child to the cinema. 2. You should not have forgotten to leave a message for her. 3. You should have waited for them.
4. You should have put down her address. 5. You should have explained to her how to get here. 6. You should not have bought these shoes. 7. You should not have told her what you thought about her idea. 8. You should have seen the film. 9. You should not have written with a pencil. 10. You should not have eaten too much cake with your tea.
1. Вы должны знать (Вам следует знать), как вырастить детей, чтобы они не были неудачниками. 2. Вы не должны давать ребенку все, что он захочет. Вам не следует удовлетворять любую его прихоть, будь то еда, питье, удобства. В противном случае он вырастет с верой в то, что общество обязано содержать его. 3. Вам не следует смеяться над ребенком, когда он подхватывает плохие слова. Это заставит его подумать, что он не такой сообразительный (умный). Это также не будет поощрять его в том, чтобы схватывать «более симпатичные» фразы. 4. Вам лучше не избегать употребления слова «Плохо» («Ты не прав»). Это не приучит его к мысли, что общество против него, если вдруг позднее он будет арестован за кражу машины. 5. Вам не надо подбирать книги, ботинки, одежду — все то, что ребенок разбрасывает где попало. Вы не должны делать все за него, иначе он научится перекладывать свою ответственность на других. Вашему ребенку нужно знать и выполнять свои обязанности в указанное время. У него должно быть чувство ответственности. Он должен быть благородным (порядочным) человеком. 6. Вам лучше не ссориться часто в присутствии своего ребенка. В противном случае он не будет слишком шокирован, если позже развалится семья. 7. Вам не нужно становиться на его сторону против соседей, учителей и полицейских. Они не все с предубеждением относятся к вашему ребенку. 8. Если он попадет в беду (в неприятную историю), вы не должны оправдывать себя, говоря: «Я никогда ничего не мог сделать с ним».
1. You should tell her about it. 2. You should not stay there so late. 3. She should go to the doctor at once. 4. You should put on woollen socks. 5. They should begin earlier. 6. You should not speak English to her. 7. You should turn right. 8. You should tell somebody about it.
1. You should have told her about it. 2. You should not have stayed there so late. 3. She should have gone to the doctor at once. 4. You should have put on woollen socks. 5. They should have begun earlier. 6. You should not have spoken English to her. 7. You should have turned right. 8. You should have told somebody about it.
1. You should work more. 2. She should listen to the teacher's advice. 3. You should apologize: you are wrong. 4. You should not miss English lessons. 5. Children should be more attentive to their parents. 6. He should consult the doctor. 7. He should have consulted the doctor long ago. 8. You should not give the child so many sweets. 9. He should read this book. 10. He should have read this book. 11. You should go there and speak to them. 12. You should have gone there and spoken to them. 13. He should not have spoken so rudely. 14. He should not have forgotten about my request. 15. She should have returned long ago. 16. You shouldn't go there. 17. You should have read this book last year.
18. You should speak to your uncle when he comes.
19. She should not have carried such heavy things.
20. He should have remembered about it. 21. You should have asked permission. 22. You should not have worried.
1. You should not have crossed the street when the lights are red. 2. You should cross the street when the lights are green. 3. You should cross the street by the subway. 4. You should take off your hat when entering a room. 5. You should have helped your classmate to clean the classroom. 6. You should take some medicine. 7. You need not have bought bread. 8. You should have been present at the meeting. 9. You need not havr sent a telegram. 10. You should not have gone out without your coat. 11. You need not have apologized. 12. You should have attended this lecture. 13. You need not have got up at six o'clock on Sunday morning. 14. You should not have read till two o'clock in the morning. 15. You need not have copied the whole text into your exercise book. 16. You need not have watered the garden. 17. You should have returned the books to the library.
1. a) must, b) should. 2. a) should, b) must. 3. a) must, b) should. 4. a) must, b) should. 5. a) must, b) should.
1. had to go out and tell. 2. should tell. 3. had to take. 4. should have taken. 5. should have given. 6. had to bake. 7. should have baked. 8. had to wait. 9. had to wear. 10. should ask. 11. should, should have bought.
1. had to leave. 2. had to get. 3. should have disconnected. 4. had to go. 5. should have written, had
to translate. 6. should not have taken, had to do. 7. should have seen, should have gone. 8. had to attend. 9. should have attended. 10. had to attend.
1. a) I did not have to buy sugar.
b) You need not have bought sugar.
2. a) We did not have to worry about her.
b) You need not have worried about us.
3. a) You need not have gone there.
b) We did not have to go there.
4. a) I did not have to go to the library.
b) You need not have gone to the library.
5. a) You need not have gone downtown.
b) I did not have to go downtown.
6. a) You need not have checked for spelling mistakes.
b) I did not have to check for spelling mistakes.
7. a) I did not have to ring him up.
b) I need not have rung him up.
1. should not have gone. 2. did not have to go. 3. need not have worried. 4. should not run. 5. should not have told. 6. need not go. 7. should not put. 8. need not give. 9. I'll just have to pay, I'll have to give. 10. should call. 11. shouldn't be. 12. needn't have told. 13. should be refrigerated. 14. don't have to do. 15. shouldn't be.
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
Сводные упражнения на модальные глаголы
1. Он, должно быть, продал свое пианино.
2. Он, возможно, продал свое пианино.
3. Может быть, он и продал свое пианино (хотя вряд ли).
4. Не может быть, что он продал свое пианино.
5. Ему следовало продать пианино.
6. Ему не следовало продавать пианино.
7. Он мог и не продавать пианино.
8. Ему не понадобилось продавать пианино.
9. Ему пришлось продать пианино.
10. Ему предстояло продать пианино.
1. They must have gone to New York.
2. They may have gone to New York.
3. They might have gone to New York.
4. They can't have gone to New York.
5. They should have gone to New York.
6. They should not have gone to New York.
7. They need not have gone to New York.
8. They did not have to go to New York.
9. They had to go to New York.
10. They were to go to New York.
1. can, must. 2. can. 3. could. 4. can. 5. could. 6. can, must, can, need. 7. must. 8. can (may), must. 9. can (may), must (may, can), must. 10. must, need, can. 11. must, need, can. 12. can, can, must. 13. can.
1. need. 2. need, must. 3. can, shall be able to. 4. need. 5. may, can, must. 6. must. 7. can, can. 8. had to, could. 9. have to. 10. can. 11. can. 12. has to. 13. could, had to. 14. must, must, must, can, can, need, must, must.
1. You may take this book if you like. 2. You can take this book: it is not heavy. 3. You need not take this book. 4. I cannot take this book. 5. Just think: we need not have gone there! 6. You need not agree at once: think a few days. 7. You may go there today. 8. You need not go there today. 9. You need not rewrite the composition. 10. You can stay: you have time, don't you? 11. You may stay if you like. 12. You need not stay if you don't want to. 13. You need not tell him about it. 14. You may tell him about it. 15. We need not repeat these rules: we know them. 16. We need not have written the composition. 17. He need not have come: everything had already been done.
1. You may go there: I don't mind. 2. You can go there: it is quite near. 3. You cannot go there: you don't know the address. 4. You need not go there: I can ring them up. 5. You must not go there: they are
very bad people. 6. You need not have gone there yesterday. 7. You should go there: they are waiting for you. 8. You should have gone there yesterday. 9. You should not have gone there yesterday. 10. She must be at home now. 11. She must have been at home yesterday. 12. We may come to see you tomorrow. 13. They may have come to our place, but we were out. 14. He must have seen this monument when he was in your town. 15. He may have seen this monument when he was in your town. 16. He can't know this picture. 17. He can't have seen this picture. 18. He might know the problem, so he might know the answer to this question, but I am not very sure (not quite sure). 19. Where are they living? — They might be living abroad, but I am not so sure of it. 20. You must be asking for trouble.
1. I must buy a cake today. 2. My brother cannot speak English. 3. My sister can speak French. 4. May I see your photo? 5. Can you show me your photo? 6. He can't be forty: he looks much younger. 7. He can't have forgotten to come. He must have been very busy. 8. We may go to the country if the weather is fine. 9. If my sister does not buy me any coffee, I shall have to go to the shop myself. 10. I cannot find my watch. — You may have left it at work. — No, I can't have left it at work: I never take it off my wrist. 11. Will you be able to speak to him tomorrow? 12. I must have lost my way. Can you tell me how to get to the Hermitage? 13. I had to read a lot of books when I was getting ready for my report. 14. I could not remember the last lines of the sonnet, and I had to ring up my friend. 15. You can't watch TV until you have done your homework. 16. We must keep in touch. 17. You should listen to him and try not to worry about it.
ГРАММАТИКА. КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
Terrorism has been a global problem for decades. However, although security at airports has always been tight, the 9/11 attacks made it clear that new measures were necessary. As a result, many new security procedures have been put into place. A good rule is to plan ahead and prepare for the strictest security policies. Common sense and wise planning are the keys to a successful trip.
One of the most important security measures at an airport is confirming the identity of travellers. This is done by checking a photo ID, such as a driver's license. If you are travelling internationally, you need to present your passport. Simply taking a look at a photo ID isn't enough, however. The high-tech buzzword in airport security today is biometrics. Biometrics essentially means checking fingerprints, retinal scans, and facial patterns using complex computer systems to determine, if someone is who they say they are — or if they match a list of people the government has determined might be potential terrorists.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind for passing carry-on security screening:
1) Check with your air carrier for specific check-in times if you are a carry-on traveller. Remember screening lines will be longer during peak travel time and Holidays.
2) Prepare for security screening, not just your carry-on items but your check-in luggage and your person as well.
3) Be ready to answer any questions and do not accept items from strangers. Keep your luggage and personal belongings with you at all time.
4) Any metal item (buttons, zippers, hair accessories, etc.) can set off metal detectors. You can
minimize screening time by reducing the number of these items on your person.
5) You should carry proper identity to indicate any medical metal implants.
6) Shoes can trigger alarms. You may be asked to remove your shoes.
7) Be prepared to open and activate carry-on electronic items such as: laptops, cameras, cell phones, etc.
8) Avoid further delay by waiting to lock carry-on luggage until you've passed through screening areas. Any wrapped packages may be searched, so wait to wrap any gifts or, if possible, pack such items in check-in luggage.
9) Avoid additional scrutiny by not carrying prohibited items, such as all cutting and puncturing items, flammable liquids and containers under pressure such as aerosols, matches and lighters, toy weapons, etc.
All rules and practices regarding security, carry-ons, and other airline/airport practices are subject to change without notice, so it is best to call your airline or check with the airport just before the departure for the latest updates.
Основные признаки (маркеры, сигналы) английских времен.
Название любого из двенадцати английских времен глагола начинается с одного из трех слов: Present, Past, Future. Есть четыре вида настоящего, четыре вида прошедшего и четыре вида будущего, которые известны как Simple, Progressive, Perfect и Perfect Progressive.
Признаки SIMPLE Настоящее время (PRESENT SIMPLE): do, does в вопросах;
в утвердительных предложениях - окончание -s в 3-м лице ед. числа.