Модальные глаголы: must, have to, be to, need

Английская грамматика. Сборник упражнений для школьников.
Упражнения: [498]   [499]   [500]   [501]   [502]   [503]   [504]   [505]   [506]   [507]   [508]   [509]   [510]   [511]   [512]   [513]   [514]   [515]   [516]



You must respect your parents. (должны)

You must not go there. (нельзя)

Must I learn it by heart? (должен?)

Предположение (должно быть)

It must be cold outside. (должно быть)

Упражнение 498. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Don't worry! This is not important. — Not important! You must be joking! 2. He never comes to work late! He must have overslept today. 3. You must not argue with the boss. 4. She must stop eating much and she must lose weight. 5. You must stop smoking! If you don't, you're going to have serious problems with your lungs some day. 6. You must work hard at your English. 7. You must learn the words. 8. Must we learn the poem today? 9. It must be very difficult to learn Chinese. 10. You must not talk at the lessons. 11. Everybody must come to school in time. 12. Don't ring him up: he must be very busy. 13. You must not make notes in the books. 14. I must help my mother today.

Упражнение 499. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол must.

1. Он, должно быть, очень устал. 2. У них даже есть яхта. Они, должно быть, очень богаты. 3. Ты должен уехать завтра утром? 4. Вы не должны опаздывать. 5. Я не должен забывать о своей матери. Я не писал ей целую вечность. Сегодня вечером я должен написать ей письмо. 6. Эта книга очень ценная. Вы не должны ее терять. 7. Неужели вам надо уже уходить? 8. Я должен признать, что я неправ. 9. Я должна упорно работать над своим английским. 10. Вы должны внимательно слушать учителя на уроке. 11. Ты должен делать уроки каждый день. 12. Вы не должны забывать о своих обязанностях. 13. Вы должны быть осторожны на улице. 14. Она должна быть дома сейчас. 15. Мои друзья, должно быть, в парке. 16. Вы, должно быть, очень голодны. 17. Должно быть, очень трудно решать такие задачи. 18. Я должен сегодня повидать моего друга.

Эквивалент глагола MUST
I have to go there. (надо) I don't have to go there. (не надо)
I had to go there. (пришлось)  I didn't have to go there.  (не пришлось)
I shall have to go there. (придется) I shan't have to go there.  (не придется)
Do you have to go there? (надо?)
Did you have to go there? (пришлось?)
Will you have to go there? (придется?)

Упражнение 500. Переведите на русский язык.

1.I have not written the composition. I shall have to write it on Sunday. 2. We did not have to buy biscuits because granny had baked a delicious pie. 3. Will you have to get up early tomorrow? 4. I had to do a lot of homework yesterday. 5. She had to stay at home because she did not feel well. 6. Pete had to stay at home because it was very cold. 7. Mike had to write this exercise at school because he had not done it at home. 8. They had to call the doctor because the grandmother was ill. 9. Why did you have to stay at home yesterday? — Because my parents were not at home and I had to look after my little sister. 10. It was Sunday yesterday, so he didn't have to be at work, but he had to do a lot at home. 11. I am sorry I couldn't come yesterday. I had to work late. 12. Why do you have to get up early tomorrow? 13. I had to go to the hospital to visit my aunt. 14. What did you have to learn by heart? — At school, I had to learn a beautiful poem "Leisure" by William Henry Davies.


Упражнение 501. Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени.

1. It is quite clear to everyboby in the family that he must start getting ready for his examination instead of wasting time. 2. It is impossible to do anything in such a short time. I must ask the chief to put off my report. 3. I don't mean that you must do everything they tell you. 4. It is already twenty minutes past eight. You must go or you will be late for the first lesson. 5.1 am very tired. I feel I must go to bed at once, or I shall fall asleep where I am sitting. 6. We can't wait for them any longer, we must ring them up and find out what has happened. 7. I am thinking hard, trying to find a solution of the problem. There must be a way out.

Упражнение 502. Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды: в прошедшем и в будущем времени. Заменяйте модальные глаголы must и саn эквивалентами, где необходимо.

1. Не must work systematically if he wants to know French well. 2. This child must spend more time out in the open air. 3. I can't recite this poem. 4. You must take part in this work. 5. He can't join the party because he is busy. 6. You must listen to the tape recording of this text several times. 7. You must take your examination in English. 8. She can translate this article without a dictionary. 9. We can't meet them at the station. 10. The doctor must examine the child.

Упражнение 503. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол must или его эквивалент to have to.

1. Я должна пойти в магазин сегодня, сварить обед, сделать уроки, пойти в школу, написать письмо брату

2. Мне придется пойти в магазин завтра, сварить обед, сделать уроки, пойти в школу, написать письмо брату

3. Мне пришлось пойти в магазин вчера, сварить обед, сделать уроки, пойти в школу, написать письмо брату

Упражнение 504. Переведите на английский язык следующие вопросы и ответьте на них.

1. Что вы должны сделать сегодня?

2. Что вам придется сделать завтра?

3. Что вам пришлось сделать вчера?

Упражнение 505. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами саn, may или must.

1. ... I come in? 2. You ... not smoke here. 3. ... take your book? — I am afraid not: I need it. 4. He ... not speak English yet. 5. I have very little time: I ... go. 6. They ... not go to the park today because they are busy. 7. You ... read this text: it is easy enough. 8. What ... we see on this map? 9. ... you speak Spanish? — No, unfortunately I ... 10. At what time ... you come to school? 11. She ... still live in Paris. 12. He is busy. He ... be writing a book about his travels. 13. But he is happy. He ... enjoy life. 14. My friend Danielle isn't a famous artist. But she ... even paint Russian icons. I ... only admire her beautiful pictures. She ... be a woman of great talents. She ... speak German, French and English. She ... translate a lot of articles for the Museum of her native town in Switzerland. She ... also teach these languages at school. She is fantastic. I am fascinated by everything that she does.


Упражнение 506. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальные глаголы must, may или саn.

1. Можно мне взять вашу книгу? 2. На уроке английского языка вы должны говорить только по-английски. 3. Мы должны сегодня сдать тетради? 4. Можно мне задать Вам вопрос? — Пожалуйста. 5. Я не могу пойти с вами в кино, так как я очень занят. 6. Можно здесь курить? — Пожалуйста. 7. Он сейчас должен быть в своем кабинете. Вы можете поговорить с ним. 8. Можно войти? — Пожалуйста. 9. Вы должны прочитать этот текст. 10. Может ли он выполнить это задание? 11. Я должен сегодня поговорить со своим другом. 12. Мы должны заплатить за электричество к концу месяца. 13. Эта женщина — прекрасный водитель. Она может водить даже автобус. 14. Можно мне бутерброд с тунцом и чашечку кофе?



ТО HAVE TO — вынужденная необходимость

ТО BE TO — необходимость по договоренности, плану или приказу

I have to go there. — должен (вынужден)

I am to go there. — должен, предстоит, (договорились, или такое расписание)

I had to go there. — пришлось

I was to go there. — предстояло

TO BE может употребляться как модальный глагол в двух временах: Present Simple и Past Simple.

Упражнение 507. Переведите на русский язык.

1. We were to get there before the others. 2. He was to tell her where to find us. 3. She was to graduate that year. 4. She was to wear that dress at the graduation party. 5. He is to come here at five o'clock. 6. The train was to leave at five-fifteen. 7. I was to wait for her at the railway station. 8. We were to go to the cinema that afternoon. 9. They were to start on Monday. 10. He was to telephone the moment she was out of danger. 11. Roses were to be planted round the pond. 12. There was to be a discussion later on.

Упражнение 508. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя модальный глагол to be to.

• E.g. 1) The lecture is supposed to begin at eight. The lecture is to begin at eight.
2) I expect her to come and help. She is to come and help.
3) It was planned that we should wait for them at the door. We were to wait for them at the door.
4) It was arranged that he should meet her at the station. He was to meet her at the station.
5) Who will take care of the children? Who is to take care of the children?

1. What am I supposed to do if they come too early? 2. It was arranged that the youngest children would play on the beach. 3. We expect you to show the place to her. 4. I am-expected to leave tomorrow at the latest. 5. Where am I supposed to be taken? 6. This is Dora. It is arranged that she will share the room with you. 7. And who will do the cooking? 8. It is expected that two more apartment houses will be built here. 9. It was arranged that the cup final would be played that afternoon. 10. Who will meet you at the station?

Упражнение 509. Вставьте модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. As we had agreed before, we ... to meet at two o'clock to go to the stadium together. But Mike did not come. I waited for another half hour, but then I ...to leave as I was afraid to be late. 2. The meeting ... to begin at five o'clock. Don't be late. 3. Where ... the lecture to take place? — I suppose in the assembly hall. 4. So, our plan is as follows: I ... to go to the library and bring the books. You ... to look through all the material here. Later we ... to work together. 5. "You ... to do it alone, without anybody's help," she said sternly. 6. I ... to help my friends with this work now, so I cannot go with you. 7. It was raining hard and we ... to wait until it stopped raining. 8. I ... to ask him about it tomorrow, as today he has already gone. 9. Why didn't you tell me that I ... to buy the books? 10. According to the order of the schoolmistress all the pupils ... to return the library books before the twenty-third of May.


Упражнение 510. Вставьте модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. The agreement was that if Johnny White could not repay the money he had borrowed, then Luke Flint... to have the right to sell the land. 2. If I don't ring up before six o'clock, then you ... to go to the concert hall alone and wait for me at the entrance. Is that clear? 3. The planters ... to gather their cotton at once, as they had been warned that heavy rains were expected. 4. I ... to wear glasses as my eyesight is very weak. 5. Johnny White ... to borrow from Luke Flint at a high interest, for there was no one else in the district who lent money. 6. "Cheating is a very nasty thing," said the teacher, "and we ... to get rid of it." 7. She ... to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 8. They decided that she ... to send them a telegram every tenth day. 9. You ... to learn all the new words for the next lesson. 10. Do you know this man? He ... to be our new teacher of history. 11. Who ... to go to the library to get the new books? — I was, but I couldn't because I ... to finish some work at the phonetics laboratory. 12. It is raining. You ... to put on your raincoat. 13. "The patient ... to stay in bed for a few days," ordered the doctor. 14. The child had stomach trouble and ... to take castor oil. 15. I told her she ... to open the window for a while every day.

Упражнение 511. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. Мне придется посидеть дома эти дни. Врач говорит, что я не должен никуда выходить, пока температура не будет нормальной. 2. Посидите здесь, пока он занят. Я думаю, вам не придется долго ждать. 3. Спектакль должен был начаться в семь часов. 4. Мы должны были отложить поездку, так как погода испортилась. 5. Если Вы хотите хорошо овладеть языком, Вы должны очень много читать. 6. По новому расписанию у нас будет пять уроков английского языка в неделю. 7. Мы решили, что все должны принять участие в концерте. 8. Рано или поздно Вам придется пойти к врачу. 9. В будущем году мы должны начать изучение астрономии. 10. Чтобы разработать новую теорию, ученые должны были провести бесчисленные опыты. 11. Вам предстоит выучить это стихотворение к среде. 12. Мне задали выучить это стихотворение к среде. 13. Мне пришлось выучить это стихотворение к среде. 14. Мне придется выучить это стихотворение к среде. 15. Ему приходится учить это стихотворение сегодня, так как он не выучил его вчера. 16. Вам не придется учить это стихотворение. 17. Мне не пришлось учить это стихотворение. 18. Так как он выучил это стихотворение вчера, ему не нужно учить его теперь. 19. На этой неделе нам предстоит встретиться с выдающимся ученым. 20. Выхода не было, и ему пришлось заплатить штраф. 21. Мне было задано написать сочинение о творчестве Пушкина, а для этого мне пришлось перечитать некоторые из его произведений, которые я плохо помнил.


NEED NOT — отсутствие необходимости (можно не ...)

NEED...? — надо...?

You need not do it. — можете не делать

Need I do it? — надо?


Ты не можешь делать этого. — You cannot do it.

Ты можешь не делать этого. — You need not do it.

Обратите внимание:

You need not have done it — могли и не делать (а сделали)

Упражнение 512. Переведите на русский язык.

1. You cannot read so many books. 2. You need not read so many books. 3. Nick cannot go to school today. 4. Nick need not go to school today. 5. They cannot translate this article. 6. They need not translate this article. 7. My sister cannot write this letter: she is very busy. 8. My sister need not write this this letter: I shall phone them. 9. She cannot buy bread. 10. She need not buy bread. 11. He could not stay there for the night. 12. He need not have stayed there for the night. 13. We could not do all this work. 14. We need not have done all this work. 15. She could not cook such a big dinner. 16. She need not have cooked such a big dinner. 17. They could not write the composition. 18. They need not have written the composition. 19. I could not go to the library. 20. I need not have gone to the library.


Упражнение 513. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя модальный глагол need.

• E.g. 1) It is not necessary to go there. You need not go there.
2) It was not necessary to go there. You need not have gone there.

1. Why do you want to do it all today? 2. It was not necessary for mother to cook this enormous dinner: we have brought all the food the children may want. 3. It is not necessary to take the six-thirty. A later train will do as well. 4. There was no necessity for her to do it herself. 5. There is no reason for you to worry: he is as strong as a horse. 6. There is no need for you to be present. 7. Is it any use our going into all that now? 8. Why did you mention all these figures? The situation was clear as it was. 9. Why do you want to press the skirt? It is not creased at all. 10. It was not necessary for you to remind me about her birthday. I remember the date very well.

Упражнение 514. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол need.

1. У нас много времени в запасе, и нам незачем спешить. 2. Тебе незачем делать это сейчас. Ты можешь это сделать и завтра. 3. Она может и не помогать. Все уже сделано. 4. Ему незачем было продавать свое пианино. 5. Вы могли и не кричать так на ребенка. 6. Они теперь не могут спать. Им незачем было смотреть фильм ужасов. 7. Мне нужно тебе помогать? — Нет, спасибо, я все сделаю сам. 8. Вы можете не ходить туда. 9. Ему незачем беспокоиться о ней. 10. Я могу и не спрашивать его: он сам мне все расскажет. 11. Вам не обязательно звонить мне: я не забуду о своем обещании. 12. Надо ли ей покупать такую массу продуктов? 13. Она может не ходить в библиотеку: я дам ей книгу. 14. Вы могли и не брать зонт: я уверен, что дождя не будет.

Упражнение 515. Вставьте модальные глаголы may, must или need.

1. ... I take this book for a little while? — I am sorry, but I ... return it to the library at once. 2. Alec ... practise this sound specially, but the other pupils ... not: they all pronounce it properly. 3. They ... come at any time they like between ten and twelve in the morning, but they ... not come if they don't want to. 4. ... I go there right now? — Yes, you ... . 5. ... we hand in our compositions tomorrow? — No, you ... not, you ... hand them in after Sunday. 6. ... John really do this today? — No, he ... not, he ... do it tomorrow if he likes. 7. You ... not let this cup fall: it ... break. 8. ... I help you with your coat on? 9. You ... park your car only in your own space in the back of the building. 10. You ... have cancelled your trip to Canada. But you have always wanted to visit the largest French city Montreal and see your friend Nina.

Упражнение 516. Вставьте модальные глаголы can, may, must или need.

1. Peter ... return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 2. Why ... not you understand it? It is so easy. 3. ... we do the exercise at once? — Yes, you ... do it at once. 4. ... you pronounce this sound? 5. You ... not have bought this meat: we have everything for dinner. 6. I... not go out today: it is too cold. 7. ... I take your pen? — Yes, please. 8. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs: it is too heavy. 9. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs ourselves: the workers will come and do it. 10. When ... you come to see us? ¦— I ... come only on Sunday. 11. Shall I write a letter to him? — No, you ... not, it is not necessary. 12. ... you cut something without a knife? 13. Everything is clear and you ... not go into details now. 14. He ... not drink alcohol when he drives. 15. Don't worry! I ... change a light bulb. 16. By the end of the week I ... have finished writing my book. 17. She ... not call the doctor again unless she feels worse.