Английский для поступающих в вузы
Запомните, Present Perfect - это настоящее время. Всегда указывает на связь с настоящим. Если мы хотим знать о чем-то, что случилось в прошлом, мы употребляем Past Simple Tense.
    - When was he born?
    - When did you go there?
Посмотрите на следующую ситуацию:
    - Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
    - He has lost his key. (Present Perfect) Это означает, что у него нет ключей сейчас.
Через 10 минут.
    - Now Tom has found his key. He has it now.
    - Has he lost his key? (Present Perfect)
    - No, he hasn't. He has found it.
    - Did he lose his key? (Past Simple)
    - Yes, he did.
    - He lost his key (Past Simple) but now he has found it (Present Perfect)

Present Perfect может переводиться на русский язык глаголами в прошедшем времени как и Past Simple.
    - He has lost his key.(Present Perfect). Он потерял ключ.
    - He lost his key. (Past Simple). Он потерял ключ.
Три формы неправильного глагола to lose: lose, lost, lost

Present Perfect и Past Simple в диалогах

1) — HAVE you practised your English today ?
— Yes, I HAVE.
— When DID YOU PRACTISE IT?
— At my first lesson.

2) — Have you already done your homework?
— Yes, we HAVE.
— When DID YOU DO IT?
— Two hours ago.

3) — HAVE YOU SEEN this film?
— Yes, I have. It's a very interesting film.
— When DID YOU SEE IT?
— I SAW IT YESTERDAY.

4) — HAVE YOU CLEANED your room? It is so tidy!
— Naturally, I HAVE.
— When DID YOU CLEAN IT?
— Right after breakfast.

5) — They HAVE just FINISHED writing their test.
— Oh, HAVE THEY? And where DID THEY WRITE IT?
— THEY WROTE IT IN THEIR CLASSROOM.

6) — HAVE they started Unit II ?
— I believe, THEY HAVE.
— When DID THEY START IT?
— Last Monday.

7) Have you washed the clothes ?
— Of course, I HAVE.
— When DID YOU WASH THEM?
— Early in the morning.

Present Perfect никогда не употребляется со словами:
yesterday, two days ago, last week,when I was a child. В этом случае используется Past Simple.
    - Two years ago I worked in the insurance agency.
    - When I was a child I liked ice-cream very much.
Present Perfect используется со словами: just, already, ever, never, recently, lately, not yet.
    - Have you ever been to France?

    - I've been there twice.

    - I have just returned from France.

    Но: I was there last year.
Обратите внимание на вторые половинки вопросов в Present Perfect Tense.

- He has already finished his dinner, hasn't he?

- He hasn't finished his dinner yet, has he?