Unit 14. Present perfect (I have done). Part 2.

Study this example conversation:

Dave: Have you traveled a lot, Jane?

Jane: Yes, I’ve been to 47 different countries.

Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China?

Jane: Yes, I’ve visited China twice.

Dave: What about India?

Jane: No, I’ve never been to India.

When we talk about a period of time that continues up to the present, we use the present perfect. Jane and Dave are talking about the places Jane has visited in her life (which is a period continuing up to the present).

Here are some more examples:

  • Have you read Hamlet?” “No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s plays.”

  • How many times have you been to the United States?

  • Susan really loves that movie. She’s seen it eight times.

  • Carlos has lived in Argentina all his life, {or Carlos has always lived in Argentina.)

    We often use ever and never with the present perfect:

  • Have you ever eaten caviar?

  • We have never had a car.

    We often use the present perfect after a superlative (see Unit 100d):

  • What a boring movie! It’s the most boring movie I’ve ever seen.

    You have to use the present perfect with This is the first time…, It’s the first time…, etc. Study this example situation:

    ? Ron is driving a car. He is very nervous and unsure because it’s his first time behind the wheel of a car. You can say:

    This is the first time he has driven a car. (not drives) or: He has never driven /strong> a car before. Here are some more examples:

  • Kathy has lost her passport again. It’s the second time she has lost it.

  • Is this the first time you’ve been in the hospital?

    Use the present perfect to say that you have never done something or that you haven’t done something during a period of time that continues up to the present:

  • I have never smoked.

  • I haven’t smoked for three years, (not I don’t smoke for…)

  • I haven’t smoked since September, (not I don’t smoke since …)

  • Jill hasn’t written to me for nearly a month.

  • Jill has never driven a car.

    For the difference between for and since see Unit 19b.

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